Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints.
In some countries the term is often used to describe the corrupt use of state resources to advance the interests of groups, families, ethnicities or races in exchange for electoral support. These patronage systems have different characteristics depending on the area in which they are practiced.
The term derives from the
Latin"patronatus", the formal relationship between a " Patronus" and his "Clientes".
From the ancient world onward patronage of the
artswas important in art history. It is known in greatest detail in reference to pre-modern medieval and RenaissanceEurope, though patronage can also be traced in feudal Japan, the traditional Southeast Asian kingdoms, and elsewhere—art patronage tended to arise wherever a royal or imperial system and an aristocracydominated a society and controlled a significant share of resources. Samuel Johnson defined a patron as "one who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and, when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help". [Quoted in Michael Rosenthal, "Constable", London: Thames and Hudson, 1987, p. 203.]
Rulers, nobles, and very wealthy people used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambitions, social positions, and prestige. That is, patrons operated as
sponsors. Some languages still use the term "mecenate", derived from the name of Gaius Maecenas, generous friend and adviser to the Roman Emperor Augustus. Some patrons, such as the Mediciof Florence, used artistic patronage to "cleanse" wealth that was perceived as ill-gotten through usury. Art patronage was especially important in the creation of religious art. The Roman Catholic Churchand later Protestant groups sponsored art and architecture, as seen in churchs, cathedrals, painting, sculpture, and handicrafts.
While sponsorship of artists and the commissioning of artwork is the best-known aspect of the patronage system, other disciplines also benefitted from patronage including those who studied
natural philosophy(pre-modern science), musicians, writers, philosophers, alchemists, astrologers, and other scholars. Artists as diverse and important as Chrétien de Troyes, Leonardo de Vinciand Michelangelo, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonsonall sought and enjoyed the support of noble or ecclesiastical patrons. [F. W. Kent et al., eds.,"Patronage, Art, and Society in Renaissance Italy," Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987.] [Cedric C. Brown, "Patronage, Politics, and Literary traditions in England, 1558–1658," Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1993.] Figures as late as Mozart and Beethoven also participated in the system to some degree; it was only with the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the 19th century that European culture moved away from its patronage system to the more publicly-supported system of museums, theatres, mass audiences and mass consumption that is familiar in the contemporary world. This kind of system continues across many fields of the arts. Though the nature of the sponsors has changed—from churches to charitable foundations, and from aristocrats to plutocrats—the term "patronage" has a more neutral connotationthan in politics. It may simply refer to direct support (often financial) of an artist, for example by grants.
In the later part of the 20th century the academic sub-discipline of
patronage studiesbegan to evolve, in recognition of the important and often neglected role that the phenomenon of patronage had played in the cultural life of previous centuries.
Political leaders often have at their disposal a great deal of patronage, in the sense that they make decisions on the appointment of officials inside and outside government (for example on quangos). Patronage is therefore a recognized power of the executive branch. In most countries the executive has the right to make many appointments, some of which may be lucrative (see also sinecures). In some democracies, high-level appointments are reviewed or approved by the legislature(as in the advice and consentof the United States Senate); in other countries, such as those using the Westminster system, this is not the case. Nepotismand cronyismare more specific types of patronage.
Patronage in the United States
United Statesduring the Gilded Age, patronage became a central issue.
Roscoe Conklingof New Yorkbecame a powerful political figure by determining who in the party would be given certain lucrative positions. Conkling and his supporters were known as "Stalwarts". The Republican reformers who opposed patronage and advocated a civil service system were known as " Mugwumps"—their lack of party loyalty seen as having their "mug" on one side of the fence, their "wump" on the other. Between the two were the "Halfbreeds", who were less patronage-oriented than the Stalwarts, but not as reform-minded as the Mugwumps. [Marvin and Dorothy Rosenberg, [http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1962/5/1962_5_4.shtml The Dirtiest Election] , "American Heritage", August 1962, Volume 13, Issue 5. Accessed online 29 September 2006.]
James Garfieldbecame president, he appointed Halfbreeds to most offices (despite the appointment of Stalwart Chester A. Arthurto the role of Vice President, which represented a compromise within the Republican Party). This provoked the ire of the Stalwarts. Charles J. Guiteau, a Stalwart, assassinated Garfield in 1881, six months after he became President.
To prevent further political violence and to assuage public outrage, Congress passed the
Pendleton Actin 1883, which set up the Civil Service Commission. Henceforth, applicants for most federal government jobs would have to pass an examination. Federal politicians' influence over bureaucratic appointments waned, and patronage declined as a national political issue.
Charitable and other non-profit making organisations often seek an influential figurehead to act as patron. The relationship often does not involve money. As well as conferring credibility, these people can instead use their contacts and charisma to assist the organisation to raise funds or to affect government policy. The
British Royal Familyare especially prolific in this respect, devoting a large proportion of their time to a wide range of causes.
Sometimes consumers support smaller or local businesses or corporations out of loyalty even if other cheaper options exist. Their regular custom is referred to as 'patronage'. Patronage may entitle members of a
consumers' cooperativeto a share of the surplus or profit generated by the coop, called a "patronage refund". This refund is a form of dividend.
In the same manner as commercial patronage, those who attend a sporting event may be referred to as patrons, though the usage in much of the world is now considered archaic — with one notable exception. Those who attend
The Masters Tournament, one of the four major championship of professional golf, are still traditionally referred to as "patrons," largely at the insistence of the Augusta National Golf Club. This insistence is occasionally made fun of by sportswriters and other media. [ [http://www.golf.com/golf/tours_news/article/0,28136,1607332,00.html Davis, Seth: The difference between patrons and fans, Golf.com, April 6 2007.] ] More famously, CBS, which broadcasts the tournament, ran afoul of Augusta National management when Jack Whitaker referred to the patrons as a "mob" during a playoff between Billy Casperand Gene Littler. Augusta co- founder Clifford Robertshad Whitaker banned from commentary duties in following years, though he was restored to work years later to replace another commentator who had fallen ill. [ [http://www.golfdigest.com/features/index.ssf?/features/gd200309myshot.html Chirkinian, Frank: My Shot, " Golf Digest," September 2003.] ]
polo, a "patron" is a person who puts together a team by hiring one or more professionals. The rest of the team may be amateurs, often including the patron himself (or, increasingly, herself). Some patrons are extremely skillful and serious players; others are more lighthearted and in it just for the fun.
Patronage of Our Lady
liturgical feastof the Patronage of Our Lady was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Riteson 6 May, 1679, for all the ecclesiastical provinces of Spain, in memory of the victories obtained over the Saracens, heretics and other enemies from the sixth century to the reign of Philip IV of Spain. Pope Benedict XIIordered it to be kept in the Papal Stateson the third Sunday of November. To other places it is granted, on request, for some Sunday in November, to be designated by the ordinary. In many places the feast of the Patronage is held with an additional Marian title of Queen of All Saints, of Mercy, Mother of Graces. The Office is taken entirely from the Common of the Blessed Virgin, and the Mass is the "Salve sancta parens". The Greeks have no feast of this kind, but the Ruthenians, followed by all the Slavs of the Greek Rite, have a feast, called "Patrocinii sanctissimæ Dominæ" etc., or "Pokrov Bogorodicy", fixed on 1 October, which, however, would seem to correspond more with the Catholic Feast of the Scapular.
:"See main article Parish"In the
Church of England, "patronage" is the commonly-used term for the right to present a candidate for the benefice of a particular parish.
Civil service exam
ources and external links
*Johannes Baptist Sägmüller. [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11560c.htm Patron and Patronage] , "The
Catholic Encyclopedia", Volume XI, 1911, Robert Appleton Company. This is the reference for the Canon law section.
* [http://www.geocities.com/rr17bb/patronage.html The role of patrons in the Renaissance]
* [http://www.filmmakerstower.com Filmmakers Tower] where film projects become real thanks to Patrons of the Arts with Vision.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
patronage — [ patrɔnaʒ ] n. m. • fin XIIIe; de 1. patron 1 ♦ Appui moral donné par un personnage puissant ou un organisme. ⇒ protection. « Je ne viens vous demander ni patronage, ni référence, ni service d aucune sorte » (Duhamel). Gala de bienfaisance placé … Encyclopédie Universelle
Patronage — Patron and Patronage † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Patron and Patronage I. By the right of patronage (ius patronatus) is understood a determinate sum of rights and obligations entailed upon a definite person, the patron, especially in… … Catholic encyclopedia
patronage — 1. (pa tro na j ) s. m. 1° Terme d histoire romaine. Se dit des relations établies à Rome entre les patrons et leurs clients. • Ce qui contribua le plus à mettre une parfaite concorde dans ce peuple naissant, fut le droit de patronage établi… … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
patronage — pat‧ron‧age [ˈpætrənɪdʒ] noun [uncountable] 1. COMMERCE the support a customer gives a shop, restaurant etc by spending money there: • What will prevent the customer from shifting his patronage to someone else? 2. the support given to an… … Financial and business terms
patronage — I (power to appoint jobs) noun advantage, assistance, auctoritas, authority, backing, choice, control, controlling power, directing agency, dominance, domination, favor, good offices, gratia, indulgentia, influence, influentiality, patrocinium,… … Law dictionary
Patronage — Pa tron*age, n. [F. patronage. Cf. LL. patronaticum, and L. patronatus.] 1. Special countenance or support; favor, encouragement, or aid, afforded to a person or a work; as, the patronage of letters; patronage given to an author. [1913 Webster] 2 … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
patronage — Patronage. sub. m. Le droit qu a un Patron de nommer a un benefice. Ce benefice est en patronage ecclesiastique, en patronage laïque. sa terre luy donne les droits de patronage sur cette Chapelle … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Patronage — ist die gezielte Förderung von Menschen durch Personen mit entsprechenden wirtschaftlichen oder politischen Möglichkeiten. Eine solche Person wird in diesem Zusammenhang als Patron bezeichnet, die davon profitierende Person als Klient. Im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
patronage — [n1] support of a cause advocacy, aegis, aid, assistance, auspices, backing, benefaction, championship, encouragement, financing, grant, guardianship, help, promotion, protection, recommendation, sponsorship, subsidy, support; concepts… … New thesaurus
Patronage — Pa tron*age, v. t. To act as a patron of; to maintain; to defend. [Obs.] Shak. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English