Sangrur district


Sangrur district

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Sangrur | type = district| latd = 30.23 | longd = 75.83
locator_position = right | state_name = Punjab
district = Sangrur district
leader_title =
leader_name =
altitude = 232
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 78,717| population_density =
area_magnitude= sq. km
area_total =
area_telephone = 01672
postal_code = 148001
vehicle_code_range =
sex_ratio =
unlocode =
website = sangrur.nic.in
footnotes =

Sangrur district is now under district Barnala in the state of Punjab in North-West India.

History

The District of Sangrur takes its name from its headquarters town, Sangrur. Khunga Kothi, a place on the left bank of a canal near Jind was the summer capital Fact|date=August 2007. The city originally was a part of the Nabha State but was annexed by the Raja of Jind Fact|date=August 2007. The Sangrur District as of today comprises parts of a few erstwhile distinct administrative units, the Philkian States if Jind, Nabha and Patiala: the Muslim State of Malerkotla; and some parts of then district of Ludhiana. It is interesting to note that Sangrur itself was earlier a part of Nabha State. History of the district is, therefore, complicated, although it is traceable through its various components. It is bounded by Ludhiana and Firozpur districts in the north, by Bhatinda district in the west, by Patiala district in the east and by Jind district (State Haryana) in the south.Sangrur, the headquarters of the district administration is directly linked by road with Chandigarh (125 km), Ludhiana (77 km), Budhlada (73 km), Delhi (257 km), Sultanpur (189 km), Gurdaspur(250 km), Ganga-Nagar(240 km), Nangal (km). It is also directly linked by rail with Ludhiana and Jhakhal (in Haryana). All the municipal towns of the district except Bhadaur, Bhawanigarh, Dhanaula and Longowal have railway stations.

Early settlements

The excavations carried out by the Archaeological Department of Punjab, at the various places of Malerkotla Tehsil of Sangrur District, give sufficient proof that the district is quite rich in ancient history. From the close of scrutiny of the available data, the researchers have traced the ancient history of the district from the pre-harappan period. Almost the whole of the excavated places fall in Malerkotla Tehsil of the Sangrur Deistrict. The important sites so far excavated in Malerkotla Tehsil are:
* Bagrian
* Rohira
* Mahorana
* Bhudan
* Bahwa
* Bhasaur
* Dhingri
* Jandali
* Malaud Rorian (The Loharan)
* Mohammadpur

Recently, an exiting discovery of a pre-Harappan settlement - a pre-cursor of the Indus Valley of Harappan civilisation has been made at an ancient mound at Ruhira which has now emerged as the second important pre-Harappan site in India. Kalibaugan in the Sriganganagar area of Rajasthan was the first site to reveal an important pre-Harappan settlement after 10 years of continuous excavation. Experts believe that from the Kalibangan area, pre-Harappan people started moving in the northern or northern-eastern direction along some of the streams which have now dried up. The ancient water courses are marked by ranges of sand dunes. The different stages of this movement towards the Satluj have remained uninvestigated so far.Fact|date=August 2008

The mound is 10 metres above the surrounding fields, Originally it covered an area of more than 30 acres. However, only 15 acres of it is now left, the rest having been brought under cultivation. Out of this, an area of 900 sq. meters has been taken up for excavation. A large number of beads of terra-cotta, carnelian agate, bangle pieces of terra-cotta and bone styluses discovered there testify to the prosperity of the region and its trade relations with distant lands.

Houses of bead makers with a large number of finished and unfinished beads and two copper chisels have been recovered. These finds point to the advanced technology of the Copper-Bronze Age. Certain finds of gold beads, attest to the prosperity of the people. They used fine, well baked pots, jars and troughs. Clay figurines of bull, terra-cotta. and idli-shaped cakes have been found in abundance. A well made of hated bricks has also been discovered. At least five phases of house construction have been found.

The most notable find is a terra-cotta seal depicting a mythological scene of ritual killing.The site was possibly desires by 1700 B.C and the newcomers 'Bara foJks1 (named after Bara site near Ropar), occupied it. The use; of culture pots, vessels and water jars gave a distinctive character to this culture. The use of com bins is a typical feature of this area.

The new people who made Rohira their abode from 1100 to 500 B.C. used the painted grey ware. They were followed by people who used black ware (600 to 200 B.C.). Even though thcir regular habitation has not been found in the area under excavation, surface explorations and pits dug in the area indicate their presence at the site.

There is evident of Sunga-Kushan porttery. The area around the east has structures typical of Kushan bricks with finger marks. Some tcrra-cotta figurines including one of mother goddess, a few small coins of Indo-Pcrthian King Gondo Pharnese (first century A.D.) arid Iate Kusban coins have also been discovered, Since thc area of Sangrur lies in close proximity to the must known battlefield of Kurukshetra of epic times, there is the least doubt of its having been under the influence of vedic culture it must have been a settlement of the Aryans. The Rigwedaa is the earliest literary record of the socio-cultural development and affords us the First glimpse of the life of its people. The most important god of the Vedic period indra. A thorough analysis of the character of various Vedic gods reflects the heroic character of the Aryan Society. The heroic society of the Vedic period was tribal in character.

Further, the Mahabharata contains profuse and useful information on various aspects of the political and socio-culture life of the land. From the scrutiny ofihe Mahabharta, it is presumed that Yaudheyas, a martial tribe occupied the present area of Sangrur along with the allied tarritories in the proximity of Kurukshetra. Yaudheyas were a gena community who were famous for their valour. Their coins have been found mostly in tlhe eastern Punjab and in the region between the Satluj and Yamuna.

The area of present Sangrur Distrct along with adjoining areas came under the Maurya Dyansty in B.C. 322. It was Chandragupta Maurya who established Maurya Dynasty After overthrowing the Nandas. This area also enjoyed the blessings of the Gupta administration from the beginning of the 4th Century to the end of the 6th Century, Because of the efficient administration, Gupta era haa been known as the Golden age of Hindu period Chandragupta Vikramditya was the most famous king of the Gupta Dynasty.

In the beginning of the 7th Century, Prabhakara Vardhana ruled over this area whose capital was at Thenesar. not far from the present area of Sangrur District, His brother Harsha Vardhana who reduced anarchy to order in Northern India, and reigned for forty-one years, from AD 606-47. However, later on, Harsha Vardhana shifted his capital From Thanesar to Kanauj, because of the extension of the territory of the empire. Early in the 8th Century, Thanesar ceased to exist and another line of kings, Tomar Rajputs, established itself in the South East Punjab. After about a century, the Tomars were supplanted by the Chauhans of Ajmer.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census, [GR|India] Sangrur had a population of 78,717. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Sangrur has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 68%. In Sangrur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Area is 5,021 Sq. km.(According to Dy E.S.A., Sangrur) Sikhs make up 75% of the population in the Sangrur district. Sub-Divisional population in District Sangrur as of January 1, 2004 was:

Notable people

Two of the chief ministers of Indian Punjab hailed from Sangrur, as did one chief minister of the former state of PEPSU(Patiala and East Punjab States Union, which was later merged with present day Punjab)Fact|date=August 2007. The two Punjab Chief Ministers were Surjit Singh Barnala and Rajinder Kaur Bhathal. Late Lala Brish Bhan was the chief minister of PEPSU.

Baba Hira Singh Bhattal, who was the father of former Chief Minister Rajinder Kaur Bhathal, was a freedom fighter for India against the British, and belonged to Sangrur district. Udham Singh was born in this district. Sant Baba Attar Singh Mastuanawale, Giani Gian Singh Ji, Shaheed Bhai Mani Singh, are amongst other notable personalities from the district.

Louisiana governor, Bobby (Piyush) Jindal's father migrated to United States from the village of Khanpura in 1970.

External links

* [http://sangrur.nic.in Official website of Sangrur]


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