For nation-building in the sense of enhancing the capacity of state institutions, building state-society relations, and also external interventions see State-building.
Nation-building refers to the process of constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. This process aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. Nation-building can involve the use of propaganda or major infrastructure development to foster social harmony and economic growth.
Originally, nation-building referred to the efforts of newly-independent nations, notably the nations of Africa, to reshape colonial territories that had been carved out by colonial powers without regard to ethnic or other boundaries. These reformed states would then become viable and coherent national entities.
Nation-building included the creation of national paraphernalia such as flags, anthems, national days, national stadiums, national airlines, national languages, and national myths. At a deeper level, national identity needed to be deliberately constructed by molding different groups into a nation, especially since colonialism had used divide and rule tactics to maintain its domination.
However, many new states were plagued by "tribalism", rivalry between ethnic groups within the nation. This sometimes resulted in their near-disintegration, such as the attempt by Biafra to secede from Nigeria in 1970, or the continuing demand of the Somali people in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia for complete independence. In Asia, the disintegration of India into Pakistan and Bangladesh is another example where ethnic differences, aided by geographic distance, tore apart a post-colonial state. The Rwandan genocide as well as the recurrent problems experienced by the Sudan can also be related to a lack of ethnic, religious, or racial cohesion within the nation. It has often proved difficult to unite states with similar ethnic but different colonial backgrounds. Whereas successful examples like Cameroon do exist, failures like Senegambia Confederation demonstrate the problems of uniting Francophone and Anglophone territories.
Traditionally there has been some confusion between the use of the term nation-building and that of state-building (the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in North America). Both have fairly narrow and different definitions in political science, the former referring to national identity, the latter to the institutions of the state. The debate has been clouded further by the existence of two very difference schools of thinking on state-building. The first (prevalent in the media) portrays state-building as an interventionist action by foreign countries. The second (more academic in origin and increasingly accepted by international institutions) sees state-building as an indigenous process. For a discussion of the definitional issues, see state-building and the papers by Whaites, CPC/IPA or ODI cited below.
The confusion over terminology has meant that more recently, nation-building has come to be used in a completely different context, with reference to what has been succinctly described by its proponents as "the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy." In this sense nation-building, better referred to as state building, describes deliberate efforts by a foreign power to construct or install the institutions of a national government, according to a model that may be more familiar to the foreign power but is often considered foreign and even destabilising. In this sense, state-building is typically characterised by massive investment, military occupation, transitional government, and the use of propaganda to communicate governmental policy.
- Hodge, Nathan, Armed Humanitarians: The Rise of the Nation Builders, New York City: Bloomsbury USA.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Nation-Building — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Nation Building — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Nation building — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
nation-building — N UNCOUNT: oft N n Journalists sometimes use nation building to refer to government policies that are designed to create a strong sense of national identity. [JOURNALISM] ...calling for reconciliation and nation building after the bitter election … English dictionary
nation-building — /ˈneɪʃən bɪldɪŋ/ (say nayshuhn bilding) noun 1. the development of the institutions of a nation, as after a war, invasion, etc. 2. the encouragement of rituals, activities, etc., which tend to draw people together in national unity. –nation… … Australian English dictionary
nation-building — noun unifying the people or peoples within a state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run … Wiktionary
Nation building in Norwegen — Nation building ist ein Begriff, der von amerikanischen Staatswissenschaftlern geprägt wurde, um die Vorgänge zu bezeichnen, die in einer Reihe ehemaliger Kolonien in der Dritten Welt abliefen, indem sie sich von ihren Mutterländern losrissen und … Deutsch Wikipedia
Character and Future of Nation Building — ▪ 2005 by Ray Salvatore Jennings By 2004 the U.S. involvement in nation building in Afghanistan and Iraq had many people wondering whether an effort to rebuild these failed nation states was appropriate or would succeed. Nation building, or … Universalium
nation — (n.) c.1300, from O.Fr. nacion birth, rank; descendants, relatives; country, homeland (12c.) and directly from L. nationem (nom. natio) birth, origin; breed, stock, kind, species; race of people, tribe, lit. that which has been born, from natus,… … Etymology dictionary
Nation state — For the ambiguities and specifications surrounding the terms nation, international, state, and country, see Nation. For the online video game, see Jennifer Government: NationStates. Part of the Politics series … Wikipedia