- Catholic liturgy
:::"This is an article about liturgy in the
Roman Catholic Church. For liturgical practices in other churches, see Liturgy."
Catholic Churchis fundamentally liturgical and sacramental in its public life of worship.
As explained in greater detail in the "
Catechism of the Catholic Church" and its shorter "Compendium", the liturgy is something that "the whole Christ", Head and Body, celebrates — Christ, the one High Priest, together with his Body, the Church in heaven and on earth. Involved in the heavenly liturgy are the angels and the saints of the Old Covenant and the New, in particular Mary, the Mother of God, the Apostles, the Martyrs and "a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes and peoples and tongues" (Revelation 7:9). The Church on earth, "a royal priesthood" (1 Peter 2:9), celebrates the liturgy in union with these: the baptized offering themselves as a spiritual sacrifice, the ordained ministers celebrating at the service of all the members of the Church in accordance with the order received, and bishops and priests acting in the person of Christ.
The Catholic liturgy uses signs and symbols whose significance, based on nature or culture, has been made more precise through Old Testament events and has been fully revealed in the person and life of Christ. Some of these signs and symbols come from the world of creation (light, water, fire, bread, wine, oil), others from life in society (washing, anointing, breaking bread), others from Old Testament sacred history (the Passover rite,
sacrifices, laying on of hands, consecrating persons and objects).
These signs are closely linked with words. Though in a sense the signs speak for themselves, they need to be accompanied and vivified by the spoken word. Taken together, word and action indicate what the rite signifies and effects.
::"See Main Article:
Sacraments (Catholic Church)"
Sacraments in the
Catholic Churchare efficacious signs, perceptible to the senses, of grace. According to the Church's theology, they have been instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, and through them divine life is bestowed on us. They are means by which Christ gives the particular grace indicated by the sign aspect of the sacrament in question, helping the individual to advance in holiness, and contributing to the Church' s growth in charity and in giving witness. Not every individual receives every sacrament, but the Catholic Church sees the sacraments as necessary means of salvation for the faithful, conferring each sacrament's particular grace, whether forgiveness of sins, adoption as children of God, conformation to Christ, or membership of the Church. The effect of the sacraments comes "ex opere operato" (by the very fact of being administered). Regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering the sacraments, Christ provides the graces of which they are signs. However, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block their effectiveness in that person. The sacraments presuppose faith and, in addition, their words and ritual elements nourish, strengthen and give expression to faith. [Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church", 224]
There are seven Sacraments:
Singing and music, especially
Gregorian chant, are associated with the liturgy. The Gregorian chant, also called "cantilena Romana", has been, since its codification, (putatively under Pope St. Gregory the Great, although actually occurring later,) and remains the official music of the Roman Catholic Liturgy, prescribed by Church documents to be given "pride of place" in Her liturgies. This form of music of the Church is contained in the Sacramentary Roman Missal as well as the chant books, e.g. graduale Romanum, antiphonale, liber cantualis.Other Rites within the Catholic Church, (e.g. Maronite, Byzantine, Ambrosian) have their own forms of chant which are proper to their Divine Liturgies. Gregorian chantprovides the Latin Church with a musical identity, and like the ancient Liturgical language, provided and still provides Her Liturgies with a unifying element as Her catholicity ("universality',) has become more apparent, via the international travel of recent popes, world-wide media originating in the Vatican, etc.
Also associated with the liturgy are sacred images, which proclaim the same message as do the words of Sacred Scripture sung to the sacred melodies of the chant, and which help to awaken and nourish faith.
Devotional life of the Church
Catholic spirituality; Catholic devotions"
In addition to the sacraments, instituted by Christ, there are many
sacramentals, sacred signs (rituals or objects) that derive their power from the prayer of the Church. They involve prayer accompanied by the sign of the cross or other signs. Important examples are blessings (by which praise is given to God and his gifts are prayed for), consecrations of persons, and dedications of objects to the worship of God.
Popular devotions are not strictly part of the liturgy, but if they are judged to be authentic, the Church encourages them. They include veneration of relics of saints, visits to sacred shrines,
pilgrimages, processions (including Eucharistic processions), the Stations of the Cross(also known as the Way of the Cross), Holy Hours, Eucharistic Adoration, Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and the Rosary.
In its devotion the Church makes a distinction ("Catechism of the Catholic Church", s2132) between respectful "veneration" on one hand and "adoration" or worship on the other. Adoration is due to God alone - this includes the Eucharist, since Christ is truly present. Veneration of an image or relic of a saint is defined as respect paid to what is represented in the image, not the image itself.
Sunday, which commemorates the resurrection of Christ and has been celebrated by Christians from the earliest times (1 Corinthians 16:2; Revelation 1:10; Ignatius of Antioch: Magn.9:1; Justin Martyr: I Apology 67:5), is the outstanding occasion for the liturgy; but no day, not even any hour, is excluded from celebrating the liturgy. The sole exception is for the Eucharistic liturgy on
Good Fridayand on Holy Saturdaybefore the Easter Vigil, when it is not celebrated.The Liturgy of the Hoursconsecrates to God the whole course of day and night. Laudsand Vespers(morning and evening prayer) are the principal hours. To these are added one or three intermediate prayer periods (traditionally called Terce, Sextand None), another prayer period to end the day ( Compline), and a special prayer period called the Office of Readings(formerly known as Matins) at no fixed time, devoted chiefly to readings from the Scriptures and ecclesiastical writers. The Second Vatican Councilsuppressed an additional 'hour' called Prime. The prayers of the Liturgy of the Hours consist principally of the Psalter or Book of Psalms. Like the Mass, the Liturgy of the Hours has inspired great musical compositions. An earlier name for the Liturgy of the Hours and for the books that contained the texts was the Divine Office (a name still used as the title of one English translation), the Book of Hours, and the Breviary. Bishops, priests, deacons and members of religious institutes are obliged to pray at least some parts of the Liturgy of the Hours daily, an obligation that applied also to subdeacons, until the post VCII suppression of the subdiaconate.
New Testament worship "in spirit and in truth" (John 4:24) is not linked exclusively with any particular place or places, since Christ is seen as the true temple of God, and through him Christians too and the whole Church become, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, a temple of God (1 Corinthians 3:16). Nevertheless the earthly condition of the Church on earth makes it necessary to have certain places in which to celebrate the liturgy. Within these churches, chapels and oratories, Catholics put particular emphasis on the altar, the tabernacle (in which the Eucharist is kept), the seat of the bishop ('
cathedra') or priest, and the baptismal font.
The richness of the Mystery of Christ cannot be exhausted by any one liturgical tradition and has from the beginning found varied complementary expressions characteristic of different peoples and cultures. As catholic or universal, the Church believes it can and should hold within its unity the true riches of these peoples and cultures.
There are in the liturgy, specifically in the sacraments, elements that cannot be changed, because they are of divine institution. These the Church must guard carefully. Other elements may be changed, and the Church has the power, and sometimes the duty, to adapt them to the different cultures of peoples and times.
Likewise, the great variety of
Catholic spiritualityenables individual Catholics to pray privately in many different ways. The fourth and last part of the Catechism thus summarized the Catholic's response to the mystery of faith: "This mystery, then, requires that the faithful believe in it, that they celebrate it, and that they live from it in a vital and personal relationship with the living and true God. This relationship is prayer." ("CCC" 2558)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Abraham in the Catholic liturgy — Abraham figures prominently in Catholic liturgy. Of all the names of the Old Testament used in the liturgies of the of the Roman Rite, a special prominence accrues to those of Abel, Melchisedech, and Abraham through their association with the… … Wikipedia
Liturgy of the Hours — in a monastery of Carthusian nuns. This article refers to the Liturgy of the Hours as a specific manifestation of the public prayer of the Catholic Church. For its application in other communions, see canonical hours. The Liturgy of the Hours… … Wikipedia
Catholic Church — This article is about the church in communion with the See of Rome. For other uses, see Catholic Church (disambiguation). Roman Christianity redirects here. For other uses, see Roman Christianity (disambiguation). Part of a series on the Catholic … Wikipedia
liturgy — A liturgy is the ordered form of worship used by a church, including prayers, readings, and ceremonial acts such as the administration of the Eucharist/LoRD s Supper. Traditionally, Christian church liturgies were distinguished by the language … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Liturgy of the Mass — Liturgy of the Mass † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Liturgy of the Mass A. Name and Definition The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites. As in the case of all… … Catholic encyclopedia
Liturgy — • A Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Liturgy Liturgy … Catholic encyclopedia
Liturgy of Jerusalem — • The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Liturgy of Jerusalem Liturgy of Jerusalem … Catholic encyclopedia
Catholic Renewal — comprises changes in the Roman Catholic Church in XX century, which can be classified in three major domains: (1) aproach towards Bible (from Latin Vulgate to comprehensive translations of critical editions of texts in original languages), (2)… … Wikipedia
Liturgy of St. Basil — Liturgy of St. Basil † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Liturgy of St. Basil Several Oriental liturgies, or at least several anaphoras, have been attributed to the great St. Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia from 370 to 379. That St.… … Catholic encyclopedia
Liturgy of Addeus and Maris — Liturgy of Addeus and Maris † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Liturgy of Addeus and Maris This is an Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group because it is written in the Syriac tongue; sometimes to the Persian group because… … Catholic encyclopedia