Anti-Leninism is the opposition to thought known as Leninism or Bolshevism.

Early opposition

Opposition from Marxists

Opposition to Leninism can be traced back to the split in the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party into the Menshevik and Bolshevik factions at the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP. Menshevik opposition to Leninism and Bolshevism was essentially based on what they saw as his authoritarian nature and methods for achieving a Marxist state. Such opposition was only heightened following the October Revolution, such as Martov's denunciation of the restoration of the death penalty [] . Anti-Leninism in the context of Russian Communism can also be seen in the context of those individuals that wanted him removed as state leader during his reign of 1917-1924, this was both from moderates who saw policies such as War Communism as too extreme and hardliners who saw policies such as the New Economic Policy as a capitulation to capitalism.

Opposition from non-Marxists

Initial opposition to Lenin was from those loyal to the Tsar and the status quo of Russian society prior to 1917. This can best be seen in his expulsion to Switzerland.

Opposition to Leninism can also be seen in terms of those individuals and states that sought the removal of Lenin once in power. This was best illustrated during the Russian Civil War when foreign powers aided the White Army in their quest to unseat Lenin. During this time there also came opposition from the Polish state to the Polish-Soviet War.

Internally there were a number of events in Russia that can be treated as representing anti-Leninism, these include the Tambov Rebellion and the Kronstadt rebellion.

Finally opposition existed in the confines of the Russian anarchist movement. Whilst this can be traced back to the initial split between Anarchism and Marxism, it intensified when it became clear that Lenin had no intention of dismantling the state in the immediate future. Despite some anarchist events, such as the funeral of Peter Kropotkin, passing without objection, the anarchist anti-Leninist movement was largely suppressed.Fact|date=February 2007

Opposition after 1924

Opposition from Marxists

Whilst opposition to Lenin prior to 1924 was largely opposition to Lenin as an individual, post 1924 it has centered more on opposition to the doctrine of Leninism. Such opposition has come from Marxists who believe the ideals of Communism were betrayed following the Russian Revolution and in contrast a form of state capitalism was established. Major supporters of this form of anti-Leninism include the Socialist Party of Great Britain as well as the World Socialist Movement.

Opposition from non-Marxists

Opposition to Leninism alongside Communism, Marxist-Leninism, Socialism, Maoism and Trotskyism, is still practiced by those that oppose any form of Marxist teachings.

ee also

*Anti-Stalinist left

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