Japonic languages

Japonic languages

Infobox Language family
name = Japonic
region = Japan
family = Disputed; see Japanese language classification
familycolor = Isolate
child1 = Japanese
child2 = Ryukyuan
The Japonic languages or Japanese-Ryukyuan languages is a language family that descended from a common ancestral language known as Proto-Japonic or Proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan. The essential feature of this hypothesis is that the first split in the family resulted in the separation of all dialects of Japanese proper from all dialects of Ryukyuan. Hattori in 1954 placed this separation event during the Yamato period. [ [http://www.sicri.org/ISIC1/j.%20ISIC1P%20Heinrich.pdf | WHAT LEAVES A MARK SHOULD NO LONGER STAIN: Progressive erasure and reversing language shift activities in the Ryukyu Islands] , 2005, citing Hattori, Shiro (1954) 'Gengo nendaigaku sunawachi goi tokeigaku no hoho ni tsuite' [‘Concerning the Method of Glottochronology and Lexicostatistics’] , Gengo kenkyu [Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan] v26/27]

Some linguists reserve judgment on this point because much is still unknown about the history of the settlement of the Ryukyu Islands by the ancestors of their current inhabitants (when each island was settled, and where each group came from). In their view, the term Proto-Japanese is preferable until clearer evidence on these questions emerges.Fact|date=August 2007


The Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) languages are:

* Japanese languages ( _ja. 日本語)
** Hachijō (conservative dialects of the Hachijōjima and Daitō Islands, including Aogashima)
** Mainland Japanese
*** Eastern Japanese, most dialects from Nagoya east
*** Western Japanese, most dialects west of Nagoya
*** Kyūshū, most of Kyūshū
*** Satsugū, southern Kyūshū, around Satsuma

* Ryukyuan languages ( _ja. 琉球語)
** Amami ( _ja. 奄美語)
*** Northern Amami
**** Tanegashima dialect
**** Yakushima dialect
**** Northern Oshima dialect
*** Southern Amami
**** Southern Oshima dialect
**** Yoron dialect
** Okinawan languages ( _ja. 沖縄語)
*** Kunigami (or Northern Okinawan)
*** Ie
*** (South-Central) Okinawan (Standard Okinawan)
*** Shimajiri (the classification of the Shimajiri dialects are uncertain, but are often included geographically as Southern Okinawan)
** Miyako ( _ja. 宮古語)
*** Miyako dialect
*** Irabu dialect
** Yaeyama ( _ja. 八重山語)
*** Ishigaki dialect
*** Iriomote dialect
*** Taketomi dialect
** Yonaguni ( _ja. 与那国語)


The relationship of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) languages to other languages and language families is controversial. There are numerous hypotheses, none of which is generally accepted.


External links

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90088 Ethnologue report for the Japanese language family]

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