Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages


Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages
Chukotko-Kamchatkan
Chukchi–Kamchatkan, Luorawetlan
Geographic
distribution:
Russian Far East
Linguistic classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan
Proto-language: Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan
Subdivisions:
Kamchatkan
ISO 639-2 and 639-5: cc
Chukotko-Kamchatkan map XVII-XX.png
The distribution of Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages (red) in the 17th century (hatching, approximate) and at the end of the 20th century (solid).

The Chukotko-Kamchatkan or Chukchi–Kamchatkan languages are a language family of extreme northeastern Siberia. Its speakers are indigenous hunter-gatherers and reindeer-herders.

While the family is sometimes grouped typologically and geographically as Paleo-Siberian, no external genetic relationship has been widely accepted as proven. The most popular such proposals have been for links with Eskimo–Aleut, either alone or in the context of a wider grouping.

Contents

Alternate names

Less commonly encountered names for the family are Chukchian, Chukotian, Chukotan, Kamchukchee and Kamchukotic. Of these, Chukchian and Chukotian are ambiguous, since both terms are sometimes used to refer specifically to the family's northern branch.

In addition, Luorawetlan (also spelled Luoravetlan) has been in wide use since 1775 as a name for the family, although it is properly the self-designation of one of its constituent languages, Chukchi. The derivative Luorawetlanic may be preferable as a name for the family.[citation needed]

Languages of the family

The Chukotko-Kamchatkan family consists of two distantly related dialect clusters, Chukotkan and Kamchatkan. Chukotkan is considered anywhere from one to four languages, whereas there is only one surviving Kamchatkan language, Itelmen.

The relationship of the Chukotkan languages to Itelmen is distant, and has only been conclusively demonstrated recently.

All the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages are under pressure from Russian. Almost all speakers are bilingual in Russian, and most younger members of the ethnic groups associated with the languages speak Russian only.

Relation to other language families

The Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages have no generally accepted relation to any other language family. They are sometimes classed among the Paleosiberian languages, a catch-all term for language groups with no identified relationship to one another that are believed to represent remnants of the language map of Siberia prior to the advances of Turkic and Tungusic.

Joseph Greenberg identifies Chukotko-Kamchatkan (which he names Chukotian) as a member of Eurasiatic, a proposed macrofamily that includes Indo-European, Altaic, and Eskimo–Aleut, among others. Greenberg also assigns Gilyak (Nivkh) and Yukaghir, sometimes classed as "Paleosiberian" languages, to the Eurasiatic family.

While the Eurasiatic hypothesis has been well received by Nostraticists and some Indo-Europeanists, it remains extremely controversial. Part of the reason for this is that the Eurasiatic hypothesis rests on mass comparison of lexemes, grammatical formatives, and vowel systems (see Greenberg 2000–2002) rather than on the prevailing view that regular sound correspondences, linked to a wide array of lexemes and grammatical formatives, are the only valid means to establish genetic relationship (see for instance Baldi 2002:2–19).

Michael Fortescue, a specialist in Eskimo–Aleut as well as in Chukotko-Kamchatkan, argues for a link between Uralic, Yukaghir, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, and Eskimo–Aleut in Language Relations Across Bering Strait (1998). He calls this proposed grouping Uralo-Siberian.

See also

References

  • Baldi, Philip. 2002. The Foundations of Latin. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Fortescue, Michael. 1998. Language Relations Across Bering Strait. London: Cassell & Co.
  • Fortescue, Michael. 2005. Comparative Chukotko–Kamchatkan Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 23. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 2000. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family. Volume 1, Grammar. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family. Volume 2, Lexicon. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chukotko-Kamchatkan — can refer to: Chukotko Kamchatkan languages Chukotko Kamchatkan peoples This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal link led you here, you may wish …   Wikipedia

  • Chukotko-Kamchatkan peoples — The term Chukotko Kamchatkan peoples is used to describe a people speaking a Chukotko Kamchatkan language. Chukotko Kamchatkan languages are most commonly spoken by people of Chukchi, Koryak, Kerek, Itelmen and Alutor descent. The largest of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Chukotko-Kamchatkan — /tʃəˈkɒtoʊ kæmˈtʃætkən/ (say chuh kotoh kam chatkuhn) noun a family of related languages spoken in the Chukchi and Kamchatka peninsulas in eastern Siberia …   Australian English dictionary

  • Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan language — Proto Chukotko Kamchatkan is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Chukotko Kamchatkan languages. A reconstructed version of the language is presented by Michael Fortescue in his Comparative Dictionary of Chukotko Kamchatkan (2005). Phonology… …   Wikipedia

  • Languages written in a Cyrillic alphabet — This is a list of languages that have been written in the Cyrillic script at one time or another. See also early Cyrillic alphabet. Distribution of the Cyrillic script worldwide. The dark green shows the countries that use Cyrillic as the one… …   Wikipedia

  • Languages of Asia — There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and some unrelated isolates. Many languages have a long tradition of writing. Contents 1 Central and North Asian languages 2 East Asian 3 Southeast Asian …   Wikipedia

  • Languages using Cyrillic — This is a list of languages that have been written in the Cyrillic alphabet at one time or another. See also early Cyrillic alphabet. Indo European languages * Indo Iranian languages **Indo Aryan languages ***Romani (in Serbia, Montenegro,… …   Wikipedia

  • Chukotkan languages — Chukotkan Ləɣˀoravetlˀan Geographic distribution: Russian Far East Linguistic classification: Chukotko Kamchatkan Chukotkan Subdivisio …   Wikipedia

  • List of numbers in various languages — The following tables list the names and symbols for the numbers 0 through 10 in various languages and scripts of the world. Where possible, each language s native writing system is used, along with transliterations in Latin script and other… …   Wikipedia

  • Nostratic languages — Nostratic (controversial) Geographic distribution: Europe, Asia except for the southeast, North and Northeast Africa, the Arctic Linguistic classification: Borean (?) …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.