- Pixel art
Pixel art is a form of
digital art, created through the use of raster graphics software, where images are edited on the pixellevel. Graphics in most old (or relatively limited) computer and video games, graphing calculatorgames, and many mobile phonegames are mostly pixel art.
The term "pixel art" was first published by Adele Goldberg and Robert Flegal of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in 1982. [Adele Goldberg and Robert Flegal, "ACM president's letter: Pixel Art", "Communications of the ACM", Vol. 25, Issue 12, Dec. 1982.] The concept, however, goes back about 10 years before that, for example in Richard Shoup's
SuperPaintsystem in 1972, also at Xerox PARC.
Some traditional art forms, such as
cross-stitch, mosaicand beadwork, bear some similarity to pixel art by constructing pictures out of small colored units analogous to the pixels of modern digital computing. A similar concept on a much bigger scale can be seen in the mass games.
Pixel art is distinguished from other forms of digital art by an insistence upon manual, pixel-level editing of an image (without the application of image filters, automatic
anti-aliasingor special rendering modes), often at close magnification. In this form, it is commonly said that "each pixel was placed carefully" to achieve a desired result.Fact|date=March 2007
Purists within the pixel art scene hold that "true" pixel art should only be created from tools that place individual pixels (such as the 'pencil' tool), and that pixel artists should avoid all other tools including line, Bezier curve, circle and rectangle. Others counter that tools such as line and bucket-fill are acceptable as their functions could be just as easily, if not as quickly, replicated on an individual pixel basis.Fact|date=March 2007
Because of this rule, image filters (such as blurring or alpha-blending) or tools with automatic anti-aliasing are considered not valid tools for pixel art, as such tools calculate new pixel values automatically, contrasting with the precise manual arrangement of pixels associated with pixel art.
Drawings usually start with what is called the
line art, which is the basic line that defines the character, building or anything else the artist is intending to draw. Linearts are usually traced over scanned drawings and are often shared among other pixel artists. Other techniques, some resembling painting, also exist.
The limited palette often implemented into Pixel Art usually promotes the use of
ditheringin order to achieve different shades and colors, but due to the nature of this form of art this is done completely by hand. "Hand-made" anti-aliasingis also used.
Here are a few parts of the above image of “The Gunk” in detail, depicting a few of the techniques involved:1. The basic form of dithering, using two colors in a 2×2 checkerboard pattern. Changing the density of each color will lead to different subtones.
2. Stylized dithering with 2×2 pixel squares randomly scattered can produce interesting textures. Small circles are also frequent.
3. Anti-aliasing can be done, by hand, to smooth curves and transitions. Some artists only do this internally in order to keep crisp outlines that can go over any background. The PNG
alpha channelcan be used to create external anti-aliasing for any background.
Saving and compression
Pixel art is preferably stored in a file format utilizing
lossless data compression, so that each pixel can be stored and retrieved with exact precision. If memory or computational power is limited, run-length encodingis another option, and converting an image to a limited color space, such as an indexed color palette is also very efficient.
GIF and PNG are two file formats commonly used for saving pixel art. Saving pixel art in
JPEGformat can be detrimental to the work (due to the JPEG's lossy compressionalgorithm and chroma subsampling). BMP is also avoided, due to its lack of image compression and poor cross-platform support.
Pixel art is commonly divided in two subcategories: isometric and non-isometric.The isometric kind is drawn in a near-isometric
dimetric projection. This is commonly seen in games to provide a three-dimensional view without using any real three-dimensional processing. Technically, an isometric angle would be of 30 degrees from the horizontal, but this is avoided since the pixels created by a line drawing algorithmwould not follow a neat pattern. To fix this, lines with a 1:2 pixel ratio are picked, leading to an angle of, approximately, 26.565 degrees ( arctan0.5).
Non-isometric pixel art is any pixel art that does not fall in the isometric category, such as views from the top, side, front, bottom or perspective views. These are also called Planometric views.
When pixel art is displayed at a higher resolution than the source image, it is often scaled using the
nearest neighbor interpolation algorithmin order to avoid the blurring caused by other algorithms such as bilinear and bicubic interpolation– which interpolate between adjacent pixels and works best on continuous tones, but not sharp edges or lines; nearest-neighbour interpolation preserves these sharp edges, but it makes diagonal lines and curves look blocky. Thus, hybrid algorithms have been devised to interpolate between continuous tones while preserving the sharpness of lines in the piece; such attempts include the 2xSaI and Super Eagle algorithms.
Pixel art was very often used in older
computerand video console games. With the increasing use of 3D graphics in games, pixel art lost some of its use. Despite that, this is still a very active professional/amateur area, since mobile phones and other portable devices still have low resolution and then require a skillful use of space and memory. Sometimes pixel art is used for advertising too. One such company that uses pixel art to advertise is Bell. The group eboyspecializes in pixel graphics for advertising and has been featured in magazines such as "Wired", " Popular Science", and " Fortune 500".
operating systems with limited graphics abilities are also pixel art. The limited number of colors and resolution presents a challenge when attempting to convey complicated concepts and ideas in an efficient way. On the Microsoft Windowsdesktop icons are raster images of various sizes, the smaller of which are not necessarily direct scalings of the larger ones and could be considered pixel art. On the GNOMEand KDEdesktops, icons are represented primarily by SVG images, but with hand-optimised, pixel art PNGs for smaller sizes such as 16x16 and 24x24. Another use of pixel art on modern desktop computers is favicons.
Modern pixel art has been seen as a reaction to the 3D graphics industry by amateur game/graphic hobbyists. Many retro enthusiasts often choose to mimic the style of the past. Some view the pixel art revival as restoring the golden age of second and third generation consoles, where it is argued graphics were more aesthetically pleasing. Pixel art still remains popular and has been used in the virtual world
Citypixelas well among handheld devices such as the Nintendo DSand Cellphones.
Dollz, also known as cartoon dolls
Spriting, making small pixel characters using Pixel art methods.
Deluxe Paint, a graphics editor for the Amigafrequently used by demoscenepixel artists.
* Microsoft Paint, the raster graphic editor bundled with
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pixel-art — Agrandissement de texte dessiné dans l art du pixel. Le pixel art qui se traduit simplement par l art du pixel, désigne la réalisation d une composition numérique (ou image numérique) pixel par pixel, en utilisant un nombre limité de couleurs.… … Wikipédia en Français
Pixel art — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Este monstruo ( El Gunk ) es un ejemplo de pixel art dibujado empleando Microsoft Paint El pixel art es una forma de arte digital, creada a través de una computadora mediante el uso de programas de edición de… … Wikipedia Español
Pixel art — Agrandissement de texte dessiné en pixel art. Le pixel art, expression anglophone qui se traduit par « l art du pixel », désigne la réalisation d une composition numérique (ou image numérique) pixel par pixel, en utilisant un nombre… … Wikipédia en Français
Pixel-Art — „The Gunk“ – mit Microsoft Paint erstellte Pixel Art Grafik Pixel Art ist eine Stilrichtung in der Computerkunst, die Rastergrafiken verwendet und dabei das beschränkte Auflösungsvermögen von Bildschirmen als Stilmittel bewusst herausstellt. Sie… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pixel art — „The Gunk“ – mit Microsoft Paint erstellte Pixel Art Grafik Pixel Art ist eine Stilrichtung in der Computerkunst, die Rastergrafiken verwendet und dabei das beschränkte Auflösungsvermögen von Bildschirmen als Stilmittel bewusst herausstellt. Sie… … Deutsch Wikipedia
pixel art — noun A style of digital art drawn at the pixel level, sometimes having the pixels enlarged for a retro appearance … Wiktionary
Pixel art scaling algorithms — are image scaling algorithms specifically designed to upsample (enlarge) low resolution pixel and line art that contains thin lines, solid areas of colour rather than gradient fills or shading, and has not been anti aliased.MotivationTwo standard … Wikipedia
Pixel art (campagne Bell) — Bell Canada avait utilisé une campagne publicitaire du pixel art afin de promouvoir ses produits Bell Mobilité et Solo Mobile de 2003 à 2005, et tous les produits de Bell Canada en 2007. Pendant l année 2006, et après l année 2007 jusqu au tout… … Wikipédia en Français
Pixel Pop — is a musical art form lying alongside the Pixel Art movement. It provides an interesting and diverse range of music but due to the retro synthesis used within the music provides a recognisable sound no matter what the style. The term Pixel Pop… … Wikipedia
Art Numérique — L art numérique s est développé comme genre artistique depuis près de 20 ans et désigne un ensemble varié de catégories de création utilisant les spécificités du langage numérique. Portée par la puissance de calcul de l ordinateur et le… … Wikipédia en Français