Caspase 1


Caspase 1

Caspase 1 is an enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursor forms of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β and interleukin 18, into active mature peptides. [cite journal |author=Thornberry N, Bull H, Calaycay J, Chapman K, Howard A, Kostura M, Miller D, Molineaux S, Weidner J, Aunins J |title=A novel heterodimeric cysteine protease is required for interleukin-1 beta processing in monocytes |journal=Nature |volume=356 |issue=6372 |pages=768–74 |year=1992 |pmid=1574116 |doi=10.1038/356768a0] It belongs to a family of cysteine proteases known as caspases that always cleave proteins following an aspartic acid residue.Caspase 1 is produced as a zymogen that is cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the active enzyme. Active caspase 1 contains two heterodimers of p20 and p10. It interacts with another CARD domain containing protein called PYCARD (or ASC) and is involved in inflammasome formation and activation of inflammatory processes. [cite journal |author=Mariathasan S, Newton K, Monack D, Vucic D, French D, Lee W, Roose-Girma M, Erickson S, Dixit V |title=Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf |journal=Nature |volume=430 |issue=6996 |pages=213–8 |year=2004 |pmid=15190255 |doi=10.1038/nature02664]

Caspase 1 has been shown to induce cell apoptosis and may function in various developmental stages. Studies of a similar protein in mouse suggest a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Alternative splicing of the gene results in five transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CASP1 caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (interleukin 1, beta, convertase)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=834| accessdate = ]

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