- Lawrence of Arabia (film)
name = Lawrence of Arabia
image_size = 215px
caption = film poster by
Michael Wilson "(uncredited)"
Peter O'Toole Omar Sharif Alec Guinness Anthony Quinn Jack Hawkins José Ferrer Anthony Quayle Claude Rains
10 Decemberfy|1962 "(UK premiere)" 16 December"(US premiere)"
runtime = 227 mins.
country = United Kingdom
language = English
budget = $15,000,000
Anne V. Coates
imdb_id = 0056172
"Lawrence of Arabia" is a 1962
epic filmbased on the life of T. E. Lawrence. It was directed by David Leanand produced by Austrian Sam Spiegel(through his British company, Horizon Pictures), from a script by Robert Boltand Michael Wilson (Lean and Spiegel had recently completed the acclaimed film " The Bridge on the River Kwai"). The film stars Peter O'Toolein the title role. It is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of filmmaking. The dramatic score by Maurice Jarre, and Super Panavision 70cinematography by Freddie Young, are also hugely acclaimed.
The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in
Arabiaduring World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqabaand Damascusand his involvement in the Arab National Council. Its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with violence in war (especially the conflicts between Arab tribes and the slaughter of the Turkish army), his personal identity ("Who are you?" is a recurring line throughout the film), and his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army, and his newfound comrades within the Arabian desert tribes. The film is unusual in having no women in speaking roles.
The film opens with Lawrence (
Peter O'Toole) as a civilian, riding his motorcycle down a narrow English country road, only to be killed when he tries to avoid a collision with a couple of bicyclists who were cycling on the wrong side of the road. His memorial service is staged at St. Paul's Cathedral. Reporters try to gain insights into this remarkable, but enigmatic, man from people who knew him, but with little success.
The movie then flashes back to
Cairoduring World War I, where Lawrence is a misfit British lieutenant, notable only for his insolence and knowledge of the Bedouin. Over the objections of a skeptical General Murray ( Donald Wolfit), he is sent by Mr. Dryden( Claude Rains) of the Arab Bureauto assess the prospects of Prince Feisal ( Alec Guinness) in his revolt against the Turks.
On his journey, his Bedouin guide is killed by Sherif Ali (
Omar Sharif) for drinking from his well without permission. Just outside Feisal's camp, he encounters his superior officer, Colonel Brighton ( Anthony Quayle), who orders him to keep quiet, make his assessment and then leave. He promptly ignores these commands when he meets Feisal. His fine intellect and outspokenness piques the prince's interest.
Brighton advises the Arab leader to retreat after a major defeat, but Lawrence proposes an alternative, an attack on
Aqaba. If taken, the town would provide a port from which the British could offload much-needed supplies for the rebellion, but it is too strongly guarded against a naval assault. However, Lawrence proposes an assault on the lightly-defended landward side. He convinces Feisal to provide fifty men on camels, led by Sherif Ali. As they prepare to leave, two teenage orphan boys, Daud ( John Dimech) and Farraj ( Michel Ray), attach themselves to Lawrence as his servants. They cross the Nefud Desert, considered impassable even by the Bedouins, travelling day and night on the last stage to reach water. Gasim ( I. S. Johar) succumbs to fatigue and falls off his camel unnoticed during the night. The rest make it to an oasis, but Lawrence turns back for the lost man, risking his own life. When he rescues Gasim, the Bedouin are impressed, even the formerly-skeptical Sherif Ali.
Having crossed the desert, Lawrence meets with
Auda abu Tayi( Anthony Quinn), the leader of the powerful local Howeitat tribe, and convinces him to turn against the Turks. Lawrence's plans are almost derailed when one of Ali's men kills one of Auda's because of a blood feud. Since no Howeitat can retaliate without angering Ali's followers and sparking further bloodshed, Lawrence declares that he will execute the murderer himself. He is stunned to discover that the culprit is Gasim, the man whose life he had saved, but he shoots him regardless. The intact alliance then sweeps into Aqaba and captures it in a surprise attack. Auda is less than pleased though, as the captured Turkish funds are in the form of paper notes, not gold as Lawrence had claimed.
Lawrence heads to Cairo, to inform Dryden and the new commanding general, General Allenby (
Jack Hawkins), of his victory. Crossing the Sinai Desert, his servant Daud dies when he stumbles into quicksand. Lawrence is promoted two ranks to major and given arms and money to support the Arabs. He asks Allenby whether the Arabs' suspicions that the British have designs on Arabia after the Turks are driven out have any basis; the general says at first that he's not a politician, then when pressed, that they don't.
Lawrence launches a guerrilla war, blowing up trains and harassing the Turks at every turn. American war correspondent Jackson Bentley (Arthur Kennedy) makes him world famous by publicizing his exploits. With winter approaching, many of the tribesmen go home for the year, leaving fewer and fewer die-hard supporters to continue fighting. On one raid, Farraj is badly injured when the detonator he is carrying blows up prematurely. Unwilling to leave him for the Turks to torture, Lawrence is forced to shoot him before fleeing.
Down to twenty men, he scouts the enemy-held city of
Daraawith Ali, but is taken, along with several Arab residents, to the decadent Turkish Bey( Jose Ferrer). For striking the Bey after he is covetously ogled and prodded, Lawrence is severely beaten and then thrown out into the street. Though the matter is controversial, historians and biographers (including Lawrence's authorized biographer, Jeremy Wilson) say that the rape implied by Seven Pillars of Wisdomand other sources is also implied in the film. [cite web |url=http://www.telawrence.info/telawrenceinfo/legacy3/film/film4.htm |title=Lawrence of Arabia or Smith in the Desert? David Lean's film viewed as history |author=Jeremy Wilson |publisher=telawrence.info (T.E. Lawrence Studies)] Traumatized by the experience, Lawrence abandons the fight and makes a futile attempt to return to ordinary life.
Jerusalem, Allenby urges him to go back to the fighting to support his "big push" on Damascus, but Lawrence is a changed, tormented man and, at first, does not want to return. Lawrence relents and recruits an army, including many known killers and cutthroats motivated by money, rather than the Arab cause. They come upon a column of retreating Turkish soldiers, who have just slaughtered the inhabitants of the village of Tafas. One of Lawrence's men is from the village; describing the village, he cries "No prisoners!" before he charges the Turks on his own and is killed. Lawrence takes up the cry, "No prisoners!" - resulting in a massacre. Lawrence's men then take Damascus before Allenby.
The Arabs set up a council to administer the city, but they are tribesmen, not a nation. Unable to maintain the electricity, telephones, and waterworks, and clashing constantly with each other, they soon abandon most of Damascus to the British. Lawrence is promoted to colonel and then immediately deactivated and sent home, his usefulness at an end. The negotiations are left to Feisal and the British and French diplomats. A morose, dejected Lawrence rides in a staff car on his way back to England.
Peter O'Tooleas T. E. Lawrence. Albert Finney, at the time a virtual unknown, was Lean's first choice to play Lawrence, but Finney was not sure the film would be a success and turned it down. Marlon Brandowas also offered the part. Alec Guinness had previously played Lawrence in the play "Ross", and was briefly considered for the part, but David Lean and Sam Spiegel thought him too old. Pictures of Lawrence suggest also that O'Toole carried some resemblance to him, in spite of their considerable height difference.
Alec Guinnessas Prince Faisal. Faisal was originally to be portrayed by Laurence Olivier; Guinness, who performed in other David Lean films, got the part when Olivier dropped out. Guinness was made up to look as much like the real Faisal as possible; he recorded in his diaries that, while shooting in Jordan, he met several people who had known Faisal who actually mistook him for the late prince. Guinness said in interviews that he developed his Arab accent from a conversation he had with Omar Sharif.
Anthony Quinnas Auda abu Tayi. Quinn got very much into his role; he spent hours applying his own makeup, using a photograph of the real Auda to make himself look as much like him as he could. One anecdote has Quinn arriving on-set for the first time in full costume, whereupon Lean, mistaking him for a native, asked his assistant to ring Quinn and notify him that they were replacing him with the new arrival.
Jack Hawkinsas General Allenby. Sam Spiegelpushed Lean to cast Cary Grantor Laurence Olivier(who was engaged at the Chichester Festival Theatre, and declined). Lean, however, convinced him to choose Hawkins due to his work for them on "The Bridge on the River Kwai". Hawkins shaved his head for the role and reportedly clashed with David Lean several times during filming. Alec Guinness recounted that he was reprimanded by Lean for celebrating the end of a day's filming with an impromptu dance.
Omar Sharifas Sherif Ali ibn el Kharish. The role was offered to many actors before Omar Sharif was cast. Horst Buchholzwas the first choice, but had already signed on for the film " One, Two, Three". Alain Delonhad a successful screen test, but ultimately declined due to the brown contact lenses he would have had to wear. Maurice Ronetand Dilip Kumarwere also considered. Sharif, who was already a major star in the Middle East, was originally cast as Lawrence's guide Tafas, but when the above actors proved unsuitable, Sharif was shifted to the part of Ali.
José Ferreras the Turkish Bey. Ferrer considered this his best film performance, saying in an interview: "If I was to be judged by any one film performance, it would be my five minutes in "Lawrence"." Peter O'Toole once said that he learned more about screen acting from Ferrer than he could in any acting class.
Anthony Quayleas Colonel Harry Brighton. Quayle, a veteran of military roles, was cast after Jack Hawkins, the original choice, was shifted to the part of Allenby. Quayle and Lean argued over how to portray the character, with Lean feeling Brighton to be an honorable character, while Quayle thought him an idiot.
Claude Rainsas Mr. Dryden. Rains had previously worked with Lean on " The Passionate Friends". Lean considered Rains one of his favorite actors and was happy to work with him again.
* Arthur Kennedy as
Jackson Bentley. In the early days of the production, when the Bentley (Thomas) character had a more prominent role in the film, Kirk Douglaswas considered for the part. Later, Edmond O'Brienwas cast in the part. O'Brien filmed the Jerusalem scene, but he became ill due to a heart attack on location and had to be replaced at the last moment by Kennedy.
Donald Wolfitas General Murray. Wolfit was a legendary stage actor and one of Peter O'Toole's mentors.
* Michel Ray as Farraj. At the time, Ray was an up-and-coming Anglo-Brazilian actor, who had previously appeared in several films, including
Irving Rapper's "The Brave One" and Anthony Mann's " The Tin Star". This however would be one of his last roles. Ray, under the name Michel de Carvalho, later became a prominent British businessman and, through his wife, is the majority shareholder in the Heinekenbrewing company, worth over ƒ3,000,000,000 sterling as of 2002.
I.S. Joharas Gasim. Johar was a well-known Bollywoodactor who occasionally appeared in international productions.
Zia Mohyeddinas Tafas. Mohyeddin was one of Pakistan's best-known actors, and launched a successful stage career in London after this film's success. Most famously, he played Dr. Aziz in the stage and TV adaptation of " A Passage to India" in the late 1960s.
* Gamil Ratib as Majid. Ratib was a veteran Egyptian actor. His English was not considered good enough, so he was dubbed by
Robert Riettiin the final film.
* John Dimech as Daud. Dimech was a waiter from Malta. In 1959, he had appeared in "
Killers of Kilimanjaro".
* Hugh Miller as the
RAMCcolonel. Miller worked on several of Lean's films as a dialogue coach, and was one of several members of the film crew to be given bit parts (see below).
Fernando Sanchoas the Turkish sergeant. A well-known Spanish actor (best remembered for his roles in many spaghetti Westerns), Sancho became close friends with Lean during filming.
* Stuart Saunders as the regimental sergeant major.
Jack Gwillimas the club secretary. Gwillim was a well-known British character actor, frequently cast in supporting parts in classic British films.
* Kenneth Fortescue as Allenby's aide.
Harry Fowleras Corporal Potter.
Howard Marion-Crawfordas the medical officer. Marion-Crawford was cast at the last possible minute, during the filming of the "Damascus" scenes in Seville.
* John Ruddock as Elder Harith. Ruddock was a noted Shakespearean actor.
Norman Rossingtonas Corporal Jenkins. Rossington had, somewhat ironically, starred alongside Albert Finney in "Saturday Night and Sunday Morning". He would later play the Beatles' nerve-wracked manager in " A Hard Day's Night" and appear in several of the Carry Onfilms.
Jack Hedleyas a reporter.
Henry Oscaras Silliam, Feisal's servant. Oscar was a well-known stage and screen actor who frequently played ethnic parts, including the Sudanese doctor in "The Four Feathers" (1939).
Peter Burtonas a Damascus Sheik. Burton is perhaps best-known for playing Major Boothroyd (later Q in the Bond film " Dr. No").
Various members of the film's crew portrayed minor characters. First assistant director
Roy Stevensplayed the truck driver who transports Lawrence and Farraj to the Cairo HQ at the end of Act I; the Sergeant who stops Lawrence and Farraj ("Where do you think you're going to, Mustapha?") is construction assistant, Fred Bennett; and screenwriter Robert Bolthas a wordless cameo as one of the officers watching Allenby and Lawrence confer in the courtyard (he is smoking a pipe).
T. E. Lawrence
Auda ibu Tayi
*Tafas, Lawrence's guide to Feisal
*Farraj and Daud, Lawrence's servants
*Gasim, the man Lawrence rescues from the desert
*Medical Officer in Damascus, unnamed, but based on an incident in "Seven Pillars of Wisdom"
*Tallal, charges the Turkish column at
Fictional and fictionalized characters
Sherif Ali - A combination of numerous Arab leaders, particularly
Sherif Nassir— Feisal's cousin — who led the Harithforces involved in the attack on Aqaba. The character was created largely because Lawrence did not serve with any one Arab leader (aside from Auda) throughout the majority of the war; most such leaders were amalgamated in Ali's character. This character was, however, almost certainly named after Sherif Ali ibn Hussein, a young leader in the Harith tribe, though that Ali played a very small part in the Revolt.
Mr. Dryden - The cynical
Arab Bureauofficial, was based loosely on numerous figures, including Sir Ronald Storrs, who was head of the Arab Bureau and later the governor of Palestine. It was largely Storrs doing that Lawrence first met Feisal and became involved with the Revolt. This character is also partially based upon Lawrence's archaeologist friend, D.G. Hogarth, as well as Mark Sykesand Henry McMahon, who historically fulfilled Dryden's role as a political liaison. He was created by the screenwriters to "represent the civilian and political wing of British interests, to balance Allenby's military objectives."
Colonel Brighton - In essence a composite of all of the British officers who served in the Middle East with Lawrence, most notably Lt. Col. Stewart F. Newcombe. Newcombe played much the same role as Brighton does in the film, being Lawrence's predecessor as liaison to the Arab Revolt; he and many of his men were forced to surrender to the Turks in 1916, though he later escaped. Also, like Brighton, Newcombe was not well-liked by the Arabs, though he remained friends with Lawrence. (It should be noted that in Michael Wilson's original script, he "was" Colonel Newcombe, while the character's name was changed by Robert Bolt.) Brighton was apparently created to represent how ordinary British soldiers would feel about a man like Lawrence: impressed by his accomplishments but repulsed by his affected manner. (Lean argued that Brighton was "the only honorable character" in the film, whereas
Anthony Quaylereferred to his character as an "idiot".)
Turkish Bey - The Turkish Bey who captures Lawrence in
Deraawas — according to Lawrence himself — General Hajim Bey(in Turkish, "Hacim Muhiddin Bey"), though he is not named in the film. Though the incident was mentioned in Lawrence's autobiography " Seven Pillars of Wisdom", a few historians have conjectured that this event never happened. This is not the view of Jeremy Wilson, "The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence" (ISBN 0-689-11934-8) or the author of the Pulitzer Prize winning biography "A Prince of Our Disorder," John E. Mack, (ISBN 0-316-54232-6).
Jackson Bentley - Based on famed American journalist
Lowell Thomas, who did help make Lawrence famous with accounts of his bravery. However, Thomas was at the time a young man who spent only a few days (or weeks at most) with Lawrence in the field unlike Bentley, who is depicted as a cynical middle-aged man who is present during the whole of Lawrence's later campaigns. Bentley was the narrator in Michael Wilson's original script, but Robert Boltreduced his role significantly for the final script. It should also be stated that Thomas did not start reporting on Lawrence until after the end of World War I, and genuinely held Lawrence in high regard, unlike Bentley, who seems to hold him in contempt.
The historical accuracy of the film, and particularly its portrayal of Lawrence himself, has been called into question by numerous scholars. Most of the film's characters are either real or based on real characters to varying degrees. The events depicted in the film are largely based on accepted historical fact and Lawrence's own writing about events, though they have various degrees of .
Some scenes — such as the attack on
Aqaba— were heavily , while those dealing with the Arab Councilwere inaccurate, in as much as the council remained more or less in power in Syriauntil Francedeposed Feisal in 1920. The theme (in the second half of the film) that Lawrence's Arab army deserted almost to a man as he moved further north was completely fictional. The film's timeline of the Arab Revoltand World War I, and the geography of the Hedjazregion, are frequently questionable. For instance, Bentley interviews Feisal in late 1917, after the fall of Aqaba, saying the United States has not yet entered the war; yet America had been in the war for several months by that point in time. Further, Lawrence's involvement in the Arab Revolt prior to the attack on Aqaba — such as his involvement in the seizures of Yenboand Wejh— is completely excised. The rescue and execution of Gassim is based on two separate incidents which were conflated together for dramatic reasons.
Representation of Lawrence
Many complaints about the film's accuracy, however, center on the characterization of Lawrence himself. The perceived problems with the portrayal of Lawrence begin with the differences in his physical appearance: 6-foot 2-inch
Peter O'Toolewas almost nine inches taller than the real Lawrence. His behavior, however, has caused much more debate.
The screenwriters depict Lawrence as an egotist. Lawrence actually shunned the
limelight, as evidenced by his attempts after the war to hide under various assumed names. Even during the war, Lowell Thomaswrote in "With Lawrence in Arabia" that he could only take pictures of him by tricking him (though he did later agree to pose for several pictures for Thomas's stage show). Thomas's famous comment that Lawrence "had a genius for backing into the limelight" referred to the fact that his extraordinary actions prevented him from being as private as he would have liked. Others disagree, pointing to Lawrence's own writings in " Seven Pillars of Wisdom" to support the argument that he was egotistical.
Lawrence "was" aware of the
Sykes-Picot Agreement,Fact|date|date=April 2008contrary to the film, but he hoped that the Arabs' contribution to the Allied victory would convince the Allies to grant the Arabs their independence. Lawrence was, as the film suggests, torn between loyalty to the British and his promises to the Arabs, but by omitting his knowledge of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the film removes the catalyst for this conflict.
Representation of other characters
The film's portrayal of General Allenby as a cynical, manipulative superior is not entirely accurate either. Allenby and Lawrence respected and liked each other; Lawrence once said of Allenby that he was "an admiration of mine", [cite web |url=http://www.castlehillpress.com/plates/pl01.htm |title="The Seven Pillars" Portraits |publisher=castlehillpress.com] and later that " [he was] physically large and confident, and morally so great that the comprehension of our littleness came slow to him". [cite web |url=http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/allenby.html |title=General Allenby (biography) |publisher=pbs.org] Allenby, for his part, remarked upon Lawrence's death that "I have lost a good friend and a valued comrade. Lawrence was under my command, but, after acquainting him with my strategical plan, I gave him a free hand. His co-operation was marked by the utmost loyalty, and I never had anything but praise for his work which, indeed, was invaluable throughout the campaign," [cite web |url=http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/allenby2.html |title=General Allenby (radio interview) |publisher=pbs.org] (in contrast to the fictional Allenby's words at Lawrence's funeral in the film) and spoke highly of him on numerous other occasions. It seems likely that this characterization of Allenby is in large part due to the screenwriters' anti-war sentiments. While Allenby admittedly did manipulate Lawrence during the war, their relationship lasted for years after its end, indicating that, in real-life, they were friendly, if not terribly close. Similarly, General Murray, though initially skeptical of the Arab Revolt's potential, thought highly of Lawrence's abilities as an intelligence officer; the intense dislike shown towards Lawrence in the film is in fact the opposite of Murray's real feelings.
The depiction of
Auda abu Tayias a man only interested in loot and money is also at odds with the historical record. While Auda did at first join the Arab Revoltfor monetary reasons, he quickly became a steadfast supporter of Arab independence and only abandoned the cause after the collapse of the Arab government in Damascus. He was present with Lawrence from the beginning of the Aqabaexpedition, and in fact helped plan it along with Feisal I of Iraq.
Feisal, far from being the middle-aged man depicted, was in reality in his early thirties at the time of the revolt. [cite web |url=http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/feisal.html |title=Prince Feisal |publisher=pbs.org] While Feisal was considered by Lawrence to be a wise and insightful man, he also had a nasty sense of humour (often involving practical jokes) which is not evident in the film. He also did not speak English, whereas in the film he is quite fluent.
A particularly telling fact of the film's inaccuracies are the reaction of those who knew Lawrence and the other characters. The most vehement critic of the film's inaccuracy was Professor
A.W. Lawrence, T.E.'s younger brother and literary executor who had given the rights to "Seven Pillars of Wisdom" to Sam Spiegelfor ƒ25,000. Lawrence went on a campaign in the US and Britain denouncing the film, famously saying that "I should not have recognized my own brother". Lowell Thomas was also critical of the portrayal of Lawrence and most of the film's characters, feeling that the train attack scenes were the only reasonably accurate aspect of the film.
The criticisms were not restricted to Lawrence. The Allenby family lodged a formal complaint against Columbia about the portrayal of their ancestor. Descendants of Auda abu Tayi and the real Sherif Ali (despite the fact that the film's Ali was fictional) went further, actively suing Columbia due to the portrayal of their ancestors. The Auda case went on for almost ten years before it was finally dropped. [Adrian Turner, "Robert Bolt: Scenes From Two Lives", 201-206]
Previous films about T. E. Lawrence had been planned but had not been made. In the 1940s,
Alexander Kordawas interested in filming "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" with Laurence Olivieras Lawrence, but had to pull out due to financial difficulties. Besides previous attempts, Terrence Rattiganwas developing his play "Ross", centred primarily on Lawrence's alleged homosexuality simultaneous to pre-production to this film, with Sam Spiegel growing furious and unsuccessfully attempting to have the play suppressed. (Ironically, the furore surrounding the play helped gain publicity for the film.)Fact|date=February 2007 When "Lawrence of Arabia" was first announced, Lawrence's biographer Lowell Thomasoffered producer Spiegel and screenwriters Bolt and Wilson a large amount of research material he had produced on Lawrence during and after his time with him in the Arab Revolt. Spiegel rejected the offer.
Michael Wilson wrote the original draft of the screenplay. However,
David Leanwas dissatisfied with Wilson's work, primarily because his treatment focused primarily on the historical and political aspects of the Arab Revolt. Lean hired Robert Boltto re-write the script in order to make it a character study of Lawrence himself. While many (if not most) of the characters and scenes are Wilson's invention, virtually all of the dialogue in the finished film was written by Bolt.
Lean reportedly watched
John Ford's film "The Searchers" (1956) to help him develop ideas as to how to shoot the film. Several scenes in the movie directly recall Ford's film, most notably Ali's entrance at the well and the composition of many of the desert scenes, most notably the exit from Wadi Rumm. Lean biographer Kevin Brownloweven notes the physical similarity between Rumm and Ford's Monument Valley. [Kevin Brownlow, "David Lean: A Biography" (1996), p. 443]
The film was made by
Horizon Picturesand Columbia Pictures. Shooting began on May 15, 1961and ended on October 20, 1962.
The desert scenes were shot in
Jordanand Morocco, as well as Almería and Doñana in Spain. The film was originally to be filmed entirely in Jordan: the government of King Husseinwas extremely helpful in providing logistical assistance, location scouting, transportation, and extras. During the production of the film, in fact, Hussein met and married Toni Gardner, who was working as a switchboard operator in Aqaba. One of the film's technical advisors/horse wranglers in Jordan was a descendant of Auda abu Tayi.Fact|date=February 2007 The only tension occurred when local Jordanian officials learned that English actor Henry Oscar, who did not speak Arabic, would be filmed reciting the Qur'an; permission was granted only on condition that an imambe present to ensure that there were no misquotes.
In Jordan, Lean planned to film in, among other places, the real Aqaba and the archaeological site at
Petra, which the real Lawrence had been fond of as a place of study. However, the production had to be moved to Spain, much to Lean's regret, due to cost and outbreaks of illness among the cast and crew before these scenes could be shot. The attack on Aqaba (one of the more stirring and memorable scenes in the movie with a spectacular pan shot of dust rising up from behind the charging Arabs while Turkish cannons are aimed harmlessly out to sea) was reconstructed in a dried river bed in southern Spain; it consisted of over 300 buildings and was meticulously based on the town's appearance in 1917. The execution of Gassim and the train attacks were filmed in the Almeriaregion, with the former's filming being delayed because of a flash flood. The city of Sevillewas also used to represent Cairoand Jerusalem, with the appearance of the Alcázar of Sevilleand the Plaza de España. All of the film's interiors were shot in Spain, including Lawrence's first meeting with Feisal and the scene in Auda's tent.
The Tafas massacre was filmed in
Ouarzazate, Morocco, with Moroccan army troops substituting for the Turkish army; however, Lean was unable to film as much as he wanted because the soldiers were uncooperative and impatient.Fact|date=February 2007 One of the second-unit directors for the Morocco scenes was Andre de Toth, who suggested a shot wherein bags of blood would be machine-gunned, spraying the screen with blood. Assistant director Nicholas Roegapproached Lean with this idea, but Lean found it disgusting. De Toth subsequently left the project.
The film's production was frequently delayed because, unusually, the film started shooting without a finished script. After Wilson quit early in the production, Bolt took over, with playwright
Beverley Crossworking on the script in the interim (although none of his material made it to the final film). A further mishap occurred when Bolt was arrested for taking part in an anti-nuclear weapons demonstration, and Spiegel had to persuade Bolt to sign a recognizance of good behaviour in order for him to be released from jail and continue working on the script. Camels caused several problems on set. O'Toole was not used to riding camels and found the saddle to be uncomfortable. While in Ammanduring a break in filming, he bought a piece of foam rubberat a market and added it to his saddle. Many of the extras copied the idea and sheets of the foam can be seen on many of the horse and camel saddles. The Bedouins nicknamed O'Toole "Ab al Isfanjah" [Correct transliteration required] ( _ar. أب الإسفنجة), meaning "Father of the Sponge". [ Peter O'Toole, interview on the " Late Show with David Letterman", May 11, 1995.] The idea spread and to this day, many Bedouins add foam rubber to their saddles.
Later, during the filming of the Aqaba scene, O'Toole was nearly killed when he fell from his camel, but fortunately, it stood over him, preventing the horses of the extras from trampling him. (A very similar mishap befell the real Lawrence at the Battle of Abu El Lissal in 1917.) In another mishap, O'Toole seriously injured his hand during filming by punching through the window of a caravan. A brace or bandage can be seen on his left thumb during the first train attack scene, presumably due to this incident.Fact|date=February 2007
The score, composed by
Maurice Jarre, was performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra. Although Sir Adrian Boult is credited as the conductor of the score in the film's credits, he was unable to conduct most of the score, due in part to his failure to adapt to the intricate timings of each cue. Maurice Jarre replaced him as the conductor, and is so credited on the original soundtrack recording, which was originally released on Colpix Records, the records division of Columbia Pictures, in 1962. A remastered edition appeared on Castle Music, a division of the Sanctuary Records Group, on August 28, 2006. Kenneth Alford's march " The Voice of the Guns" (1917) is prominently featured on the soundtrack. One of Alford's other pieces, the " Colonel Bogey March", was the theme song for Lean's previous film, " Bridge on the River Kwai".
The film premiered in
Londonon December 10, 1962, and was released in the USA on December 16, 1962.
The original release ran for 222 minutes (plus overture, intermission, and exit music). A later theatrical re-release ran for 202 minutes; an even shorter cut of 187 minutes briefly surfaced in the 1970s. The first round of cuts was made at the direction and even insistence of David Lean, to assuage criticisms of the film's length and increase the number of showings per day; however, during the 1989 restoration, he would later pass blame for the cuts onto then-deceased producer
Sam Spiegel. Fact|date=June 2008
The current "restored version", undertaken by
Robert A. Harrisand James C. Katz(under the supervision of director David Lean), was released in 1989 with a 216 minute length (plus overture, intermission, and exit music).
Most of the cut scenes were dialogue sequences, particularly those involving General Allenby and his staff. Two whole scenes - Brighton's briefing of Allenby in Jerusalem prior to the Deraa scene and the British staff meeting in the field tent - were completely excised, and the former has still not been entirely restored. Much of the missing dialogue involves Lawrence's writing of poetry and verse, alluded to by Allenby in particular, saying "the last poetry general we had was Wellington." The opening of Act II, where Feisal is interviewed by Bentley, and the later scene, in Jerusalem where Allenby convinces Lawrence not to resign, existed in only fragmented form; they were restored to the 1989 re-release. Some of the more graphic shots of the Tafas massacre scene - the lengthy panning shot of the corpses in Tafas, and Lawrence shooting a surrendering Turkish soldier - were also restored. Most of the still-missing footage is of minimal import, supplementing existing scenes. One scene is an extended version of the Deraa rape sequence, which makes Lawrence's punishment in that scene more overt. Other scripted scenes exist, most notably a conversation between Auda and Lawrence immediately after the fall of Aqaba, but these scenes were probably not filmed. The actors still living at the time of the re-release dubbed their own dialogue, though
Jack Hawkins's dialogue had to be dubbed by Charles Gray (who had already done Hawkins' voice for several films after the former developed throat cancer in the late 1960s).
A full list of cuts can be found at the
Internet Movie Database. [cite web |url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056172/alternateversions |title=Alternate versions for Lawrence of Arabia (1962) |publisher=imdb.com] Reasons for the cuts of various scenes can be found in Lean's notes to Sam Spiegel, Robert Bolt, and Anne V. Coates. [cite web |url=http://www.davidlean.com/articles/director_notes1.html |title=Director's Notes on Re-editing Lawrence of Arabia |publisher=davidlean.com]
The film runs 216 minutes in the most recent
Director's Cutavailable on DVD.
The HD premiere was telecast on
HDNeton February 10, 2008. [cite press release |title=HDNet Movies Presents the High Definition Premiere of "Lawrence of Arabia" |publisher= HDNet|date=2008-02-06 |url=http://www.hd.net/pressrelease.html?2008-02-06-01.html |accessdate=2008-06-05 ] Sony remastered the film into HD. In its High Definition version, the film is 216 minutes. Sony lists it at 227 minutes.
Upon its original release, "Lawrence" was a huge critical and financial success, and it remains very popular with the public and critics alike to this day. While some critics - notably
Bosley Crowtherand Andrew Sarris- criticized the film for its allegedly indefinite portrayal of Lawrence and lack of depth, most critics praised the film - in particular O'Toole's performance, the striking visuals, dramatic music and literate screenplay. Currently, it is widely considered one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. Its visual style has influenced many directors, including Steven Spielberg, who described the film as "a miracle", George Lucas, Sam Peckinpah, and Martin Scorsese. Its influence upon filmmaking and popular culture has been called "undeniable".Fact|date=April 2008
It is today regarded as a masterpiece of world cinema and is often featured highly on critical lists of best films. It was rated the fifth greatest American film of all time by the
American Film Institutein 1997 (a thoughtful but puzzling accolade, given the film is entirely British-made and -financed); in its 2007 Tenth Anniversary Edition list, the film dropped to seventh. In the 2008 AFI's 10 Top 10, it was ranked as the greatest epic film. [cite news | author = American Film Institute| title = AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres | work = ComingSoon.net | date = 2008-06-17 | url = http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=46072 | accessdate=2008-06-18] In 1991, this film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congressand selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1999 it came 3rd in a BFI poll of British films, while in 2004 the magazine " Total Film" named it the 8th greatest British film of all time. In a " Sight and Sound" poll, it came in the top ten Best Films of all time as voted by directors. O'Toole's performance has also often been considered one of the greatest of all time, topping lists made by both " Entertainment Weekly" and "Premiere".
Awards and nominations
The film was nominated for ten
Academy Awardsin 1962, and won seven, including Best Picture.
"Lawrence of Arabia" won 7 Oscars
Academy Award for Best Picture— Sam Spiegel
Academy Award for Best Director— David Lean
Academy Award for Best Art Direction— John Box
Academy Award for Best Cinematography— Freddie Young
Academy Award for Original Music Score— Maurice Jarre
Academy Award for Film Editing— Ann V. Coates
Academy Award for Sound— John Cox
It was nominated for
Academy Award for Best Actor— Peter O'Toole
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor— Omar Sharif
Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay— Robert Boltand Michael Wilson
"Lawrence of Arabia" won four BAFTA Awards
*BAFTA Award for Best Film from any Source —
Sam Spiegel, David Lean
*BAFTA Award for Best British Film —
Sam Spiegel, David Lean
*BAFTA Award for Best British Actor —
*BAFTA Award for Best British Screenplay —
Robert Boltand Michael Wilson
It was nominated for
*BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor —
Golden Globe Awards
"Lawrence of Arabia " won fiveGolden Globes
*Best Motion Picture - Drama —
David Lean, Sam Spiegel
*Best Director of a Motion Picture —
*Best Supporting Actor —
*Most Promising Newcomer - Male —
*Best Cinematography, Color —
Freddie YoungIt was nominated for
*Most Promising Newcomer - Male —
;Directors Guild of America
* Outstanding Directorial Achievement -
David Lean;David di Donatello Awards
* Best Foreign Film - Sam Spiegel;British Society of Cinematographers
* Best Cinematography Award - Freddie Young;Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists
* Best Director Foreign Film - David Lean;Kinema Junpo Awards
* Best Foreign Language Film - David Lean ; National Board of Review
* Best Director - David Lean ; Writers' Guild of Great Britain
* Best British Dramatic Screenplay - Robert Bolt, Michael Wilson
American Film Institute recognition
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies#5
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills# 23
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains:
** T.E. Lawrence, hero #10
AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores#3
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers#30
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)#7
AFI's 10 Top 10- #1 Epic film
The use of the locations in
Almería, Spain for the train sequences and others made that region popular with international film makers. Most famously, it became the setting of virtually all of the Spaghetti Westernsof the '60s and '70s, specifically those of Sergio Leone. (The oasisset from "Lawrence" briefly appears in Leone's " For a Few Dollars More" (1965).)Fact|date=February 2007 Many of the sets used or built in the film later resurfaced in later movies, including John Milius's " The Wind and the Lion" (1975), which used several of the same palaces in Sevilleand the Aqaba set as the setting for its climactic battle, while the Plaza de España appears in "" (2002), as the Theed Palace.
The chorus in the main music theme is identical to the one used in the 2004 film "Troy" in which
Peter O'Toolealso appears.
The main musical title of the film was used in the
James Bondfilm "The Spy Who Loved Me" (1977) in the scene where Roger Mooreand Barbara Bach's characters wander through the desert after their car breaks down. This was done as a joke by one of the editors who liked to play music from the film during the daily rushes.
Steven Spielbergconsiders this his favorite movie of all time, and the one which convinced him to become a film maker. [DVD documentary, "A Conversation with Steven Spielberg"] Screenwriter William Monahan, who scripted " Kingdom of Heaven" and " The Departed", among others, is a fan of Robert Boltand has stated on numerous occasions that viewing "Lawrence" is what inspired him to be a screenwriter.
In 1990, a made-for-television film, "", was produced as a sequel to the film. It featured
Ralph Fiennesas Lawrence and Alexander Siddigas Prince Feisal. The movie dealt primarily with the attempts of Lawrence and Feisal to secure independence for Arabia during the 1919 Versailles Conference following the end of World War I. The movie was generally well-received and deals more with the political ramifications of Lawrence's efforts in the Middle East.
*tcmdb title|id=4455|title=Lawrence of Arabia
* [http://www.bafta.org/archive/david-lean/lawrence-of-arabia-journal,8,BAA.html The Making of "Lawrence of Arabia"] , Digitised
BAFTAJournal, Winter 1962-3
* [http://www.lawrenceofarabia.co.uk/ Site dedicated to one of Britain's Greatest Heroes]
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