Organon


Organon

The Organon (Greek: όργανον meaning tool, organ) is the name given by Aristotle's followers, the Peripatetics, to the standard collection of his six works on logic:

Contents

Constitution of the texts

The order of the works is not chronological (which is now hard to determine) but was deliberately chosen by Theophrastus to constitute a well-structured system. Indeed, parts of them seem to be a scheme of a lecture on logic. The arrangement of the works was made by Andronicus of Rhodes around 40 BC.[1]

Aristotle's Metaphysics has some points of overlap with the works making up the Organon but is not traditionally considered part of it; additionally there are works on logic attributed, with varying degrees of plausibility, to Aristotle that were not known to the Peripatetics.

  • The Categories (Latin: Categoriae) introduces Aristotle's 10-fold classification of that which exists. These categories consist of substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situation, condition, action, and passion.
  • On Interpretation (Latin:De Interpretatione, Greek Perihermenias) introduces Aristotle's conception of proposition and judgment, and the various relations between affirmative, negative, universal and particular propositions. It contains Aristotle's principal contribution to philosophy of language. It also discusses the Problem of future contingents.
  • The Prior Analytics (Latin: Analytica Priora) introduces his syllogistic method (see term logic), argues for its correctness, and discusses inductive inference.
  • The Posterior Analytics (Latin: Analytica Posteriora) deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge.
  • The Topics (Latin: Topica) treats issues in constructing valid arguments, and inference that is probable, rather than certain. It is in this treatise that Aristotle mentions the Predicables, later discussed by Porphyry and the scholastic logicians.
  • The Sophistical Refutations (Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) gives a treatment of logical fallacies, and provides a key link to Aristotle's work on rhetoric.

Influence

The Organon was used in the school founded by Aristotle at the Lyceum, and some parts of the works seem to be a scheme of a lecture on logic. So much so that after Aristotle's death, his publishers (Andronicus of Rhodes in 50 BC, for example) collected these works.

Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century, much of Aristotle's work was lost in the Latin West. The Categories and On Interpretation are the only significant logical works that were available in the early Middle Ages. These had been translated into Latin by Boethius. The other logical works were not available in Western Christendom until translated to Latin in the 12th century. However, the original Greek texts had been preserved in the Greek-speaking lands of the Eastern Roman Empire (aka Byzantium). In the mid-twelfth century, James of Venice translated into Latin the Posterior Analytics from Greek manuscripts found in Constantinople.

The books of Aristotle were available in the early Arab Empire, and after 750 AD Muslims had most of them, including the Organon, translated into Arabic, sometimes via earlier Syriac translations. They were studied by Islamic and Jewish scholars, including Rabbi Moses Maimonides (1135–1204) and the Muslim Judge Ibn Rushd, known in the West as Averroes (1126–1198); both were originally from Cordoba, Spain, although the former left Iberia and by 1168 lived in Egypt.

All the major scholastic philosophers wrote commentaries on the Organon. Aquinas, Ockham and Scotus wrote commentaries on On Interpretation. Ockham and Scotus wrote commentaries on the Categories and Sophistical Refutations. Grosseteste wrote an influential commentary on the Posterior Analytics.

In the Enlightenment there was a revival of interest in logic as the basis of rational enquiry, and a number of texts, most successfully the Port-Royal Logic, polished Aristotelian term logic for pedagogy. During this period, while the logic certainly was based on that of Aristotle, Aristotle's writings themselves were less often the basis of study. There was a tendency in this period to regard the logical systems of the day to be complete, which in turn no doubt stifled innovation in this area. However Francis Bacon published his Novum Organum ("The New Organon") as a scathing attack in 1620.[2] Immanuel Kant thought that there was nothing else to invent after the work of Aristotle, and a famous logic historian called Karl von Prantl claimed that any logician who said anything new about logic was "confused, stupid or perverse." These examples illustrate the force of influence which Aristotle's works on logic had. Indeed, he had already become known by the Scholastics (medieval Christian scholars) as "The Philosopher", in large part due to the influence he had upon Aquinas. It was not until the early modern period that Aristotelian logic fell out of favor.

Since the logical innovations of the 19th century, particularly the formulation of modern predicate logic, Aristotelian logic has fallen out of favor among many analytic philosophers.

Notes

  1. ^ Hammond, p. 64, "Andronicus Rhodus"
  2. ^ The Teaching Company — Birth of the Modern Mind

References

  • Bocheński, I. M., 1951. Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Couturat, Louis, 1961. La Logique de Leibniz. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  • Hammond and Scullard, 1992. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-869117-3.
  • Jan Łukasiewicz, 1951. Aristotle's Syllogistic, from the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Parry and Hacker, 1991. Aristotelian Logic. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Rose, Lynn E., 1968. Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield, Ill.: Clarence C. Thomas.
  • Veatch, Henry B., 1969. Two Logics: The Conflict between Classical and Neo-Analytic Philosophy. Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • organon — ÓRGANON s.n. (livr.) Instrument, mijloc de muncă şi de cercetare ştiinţifică. – Din ngr. órganon. Trimis de ionel bufu, 08.05.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  organón s. n. Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic  ORGANÓN n. li …   Dicționar Român

  • Organon — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El Organon es un conjunto de obras de lógica escritas por Aristóteles de Estagira y compiladas por Andrónico de Rodas siglos más tarde. Recibió su nombre en la Edad Media. Estas obras, compuestas por Aristóteles a lo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Organon — Or ga*non, Organum Or ga*num, n. [NL. organon, L. organum. See {Organ}.] An organ or instrument; hence, a method by which philosophical or scientific investigation may be conducted; a term adopted from the Aristotelian writers by Lord Bacon, as… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Orgănon — (gr.), 1) so v.w. Organ, s.u. Organismus; 2) Gesammtname der logischen Abhandlungen des Aristoteles, weil die. Logik das unentbehrliche Werkzeug der Erkenntniß darbietet. Daher hat man auch später Lehrschriften, welche mit der Absicht auftraten,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Orgănon — (griech.), soviel wie Werkzeug, Instrument, Organ (s. d.), besonders seit Aristoteles (der unter diesem Titel seine logischen Schriften zusammenfaßte) Bezeichnung solcher philosophischer Werke, in denen (wie in dem »Novum Organon« Bacons)… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Organon F —   Discipline Philosophy Language English, Slovak …   Wikipedia

  • organon — ȍrganōn m DEFINICIJA naziv za Aristotelove logičke spise, pomagalo za spoznaju ETIMOLOGIJA grč. órganon: v. organ …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Organon — Orgănon (grch.), Werkzeug, bes. Hilfsmittel zur Erkenntnis; auch Tonwerkzeug; Titel einer Schrift (Logik) des Aristoteles und Bacons …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Organon — Organon, nennt man wohl die Logik als Stütze für das folgerichtige Denken; auch ein Lehrbuch, das seinen Gegenstand organisch, d.h. dem inneren Zusammenhang entsprechend behandeln will …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • organon — [ɔʀganɔ̃] n. m. ÉTYM. Mil. XXe; mot grec « instrument, outil », utilisé comme titre d un traité d Aristote. ❖ ♦ Philos. Texte théorique et méthodologique destiné à servir de guide pour la réflexion philosophique. 0 (…) il était de tradition de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • organon — ou organum (or ga non ou or ganom ) s. m. Réunion des écrits logiques d Aristote. ÉTYMOLOGIE    Terme grec signifiant l organe, l instrument logique par excellence …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.