- Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Pakistan-administered Kashmir refers to a disputed region between India and Pakistan in South Asia that is under the
de factoadministration of Pakistan. A part of this area of the former princely state of Kashmir, the trans-Karakoram tractwas ceded to China and the remaining area was amalgamated into two regions Northern Areas and the Azad Kashmir. Both nations had a war in 1947 over the former kingdom. India refers to this region as "Pakistan Occupied Kashmir" (PoK). [ [http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/may/23sheela.htm Rediff.com] ]
It borders the Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier provinces to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of
Afghanistanto the north west, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of Chinato the north and the Indian-administered Kashmirto the east.
Maharaja Hari Singh, King of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir agreed to Governor-General Mountbatten's [Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India.] Stein, Burton. 1998. "A History of India". Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0195654463. Page 368.] suggestion to sign the Instrument of Accession India demanded accession in return for assistance. After accession, India recovered part of the territory of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir east of the present
Line of Controlfrom the tribal invaders. India claimed that the whole territory of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir had become Indian territory (India's official posture) due to the accession , it claims the whole region including Pakistan controlled Kashmir territory as its own. Pakistan has a different perspective on this interpretation.
Pakistan Declarationof 1933 had envisioned the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir as one of the "five Northern units of India" that were to form the new nation of Pakistan, on the basis of its Muslim majority. India has a different perspective on this interpretation.
Kashmir in 1947
During the partition of
British Indiainto the Dominion of Pakistanand the Republic of India, the Princely states had the options of joining either Indiaor Pakistan. The Maharajaof Kashmir however wanted independence.
In 1947 tribal invadersDubious| does that mean pakistan army was not involved???! |date=September 2008 arrived in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan has always claimed that its government was not behind these raids and that these were spontaneous expressions of Muslim sentiment following reports of killing of Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir.Fact|date=September 2008 India disputes this citing the book "Raiders in Kashmir" in which Major General Akbar Khan, a Pakistani states the following "I wrote out a plan under the title 'Armed Revolt inside Kashmir'. As open interference or aggression by Pakistan was obviously not desirable it was proposed that our efforts should be concentrated upon strengthening the Kashmiris internally—and .. to prevent arrival of armed civilian or military assistance from India into Kashmir...". American journalist
Margaret Bourke-Whitedescribes the plunder by the raiders: "Their buses and trucks, loaded with booty, arrived every other day and took more Pathansto Kashmir. Ostensibly they want to liberate their Kashmiri Muslim brothers, but their primary objective was riot and loot. In this they made no distinction between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims"."The raiders advanced into Baramulla, the biggest commercial centre of the region with a population then of 11,000, until they were only an hour away from Srinagar." Unable to prevent the advance the Maharaja, on October 24, 1947, appealed for military assistance from the Government of India. The Indian Government argued that in order for assistance the state would have to accede to India.
According to the Indian embassy: cquote|Whereupon the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession on October 26, 1947. A simultaneous appeal for assistance and for the state’s accession to the Indian Union was also made by
Sheikh Abdullah, leader of the National Conference, and the undisputed leader of the people, who had for his views been imprisoned by the Maharaja’s government into September ’47 and released only under pressure of India’s Prime Minister. On receipt of the signed Instrument of Accession from the Maharaja, preparations were made to fly Indian troops to the State. The formal letter of acceptance of the Accession was signed by Lord Mountbatten on October 27 making Jammu and Kashmir an integral part of India even as Indian forces were airlifted to Srinagar.Fact|date=September 2008
Pakistan disputes this and according to the BBC
Jawaharlal Nehru, then Prime Minister of India asked the UNto intervene. The United Nations asked for a ceasefire and the present ' Line of Control' was created. [United Nations Resolution 13 AUGUST 1948 [http://www.kashmiri-cc.ca/un/sc13aug48.htm] ] The area which remained under the control of Pakistan became the Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
1947 To 1970
The whole area of Pakistan-administered Kashmir was administered as it was before independence.
Additionally, a part of Hunza-Gilgit called
Raskamand the Shaksgam Valleyof Baltistanregion, ceded by Pakistan to the People's Republic of Chinain 1963 pending settlement of the dispute over Kashmir. This ceded area is also known as the Trans-Karakoram Tract.
Pakistan-administered Kashmir is administratively divided into two parts:
# The Northern Areas, consisting of the regions of Gilgit and
Baltistan. Gilgit was an agency leased by the Maharaja to British Government. Baltistan was western district of Ladakhprovince which was annexed by Pakistan in 1948. The area is part of the disputed Jammu and Kashmirregion.
Pakistan is contemplating to give more administrative powers and democratic rights to the areas under Pakistan control. fact|date=September 2008
Pakistan administered Kashmir does not include
Aksai Chin, the area of the former Princely state of Kashmir and Jammuthat is under Chinese control since 1962.The cease-fire line that separates Jammu and Kashmirfrom the Aksai Chinis known as the Line of Actual Control(LAC).
Elections were held to the 49-seat Legislative Assembly of Pakistan-Administered Kashmir on July 11 to the eighth Legislative Assembly since 1970 (seventh since 1974 when Pakistan granted the region a parliamentary system with adult franchise). "Azad" Kashmir is categorised as an "autonomous" region. But critics claim titles such as Prime Minister and President for the region's elected political leadership are misleading [http://www.thehindu.com/2006/08/15/stories/2006081503691000.htm] as candidates are required to sign an affidavit of allegiance to Kashmir's accession to Pakistan. [http://www.thehindu.com/2006/08/15/stories/2006081503691000.htm]
On September 14, 1994, the Supreme Court of Pakistan-administered Kashmir ruled that "the Northern areas are a part of J&K State but are not a part of Azad J&K as defined in the Interim Constitution Act 1974" [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2324/stories/20061215002104600.htm] . The Northern Areas presently has no officially named status in Pakistan. Pakistan does not consider this area as a "province" of Pakistan or as a part of "Azad Kashmir". They are ruled directly from
Islamabadthrough a Northern Areas Council. A chief executive (usually a retired Pakistani army officer), appointed by Islamabad is the local administrative head. [http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/kashmir/Kashmir_MEA/Northern_Areas.html] This area presently has no representatives in both the Azad Kashmir Assembly and in Pakistan’s parliament. Northern Areas’ Legislative Council was created with a membership of 29(later increased to 32), but its powers are restricted. On May 11,2007 the NA’s chief executive, who also happens to be the Minister for Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas Affairs, declared that the region had a right to be represented in the National Assembly. Others demand that it should be given the status of a province. The changes made in 1994 in the local bodies’ ordinance gave more representation to women and delegated some administrative and financial powers to the local administration. However, the people of the region do not enjoy fundamental rights, because it continues to be governed by the Legal Framework Order of 1994. [http://www.dawn.com/2007/10/23/ed.htm]
Jammu Kashmir Regions
Azad Kashmir: Muzaffarabad
Northern Areas: Gilgit, Skardu
Jammu and Kashmir: Jammu, Srinagar, Leh
Line of Control(LoC)- dividing Indian and Pakistani administered territories.
Line of Actual Control(LAC)- dividing Indian and Chinese administered territories.
* [http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Kashmir/Kashmir_MEA/POK.html Kashmir - An Indian perspective]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1762146.stm BBC article, Kashmir: The origins of the dispute]
* [http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/24/stories/2006092404141200.htm An article on human rights in Pakistani Kashmir by the Hindu - an Indian Newpaper]
* [http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SouthAsia/kashmir.html Conflict in Kashmir: Selected Internet Resources by the Library, University of California, Berkeley, USA;
University of California at BerkeleyLibrary Bibliographies and Web-Bibliographies list]
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