Oblique projection


Oblique projection
This article discusses imaging of three-dimensional objects. For an abstract mathematical discussion, see Projection (linear algebra).
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Oblique projection is a simple type of graphical projection used for producing pictorial, two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects.

Contents

Overview

Oblique projection with foreshortening by half, seen from the side.

Oblique projection is a type of parallel projection:

  • it projects an image by intersecting parallel rays (projectors)
  • from the three-dimensional source object with the drawing surface (projection plane).

In both oblique projection and orthographic projection, parallel lines of the source object produce parallel lines in the projected image. The projectors in oblique projection intersect the projection plane at an oblique angle to produce the projected image, as opposed to the perpendicular angle used in orthographic projection.

Mathematically, the parallel projection of the point (x,y,z) on the xy-plane gives (x + az,y + bz,0). The constants a and b uniquely specify a parallel projection. When a = b = 0, the projection is said to be "orthographic" or "orthogonal". Otherwise, it is "oblique". The constants a and b are not necessarily less than 1, and as a consequence lengths measured on an oblique projection may be either larger or shorter than they were in space. In a general oblique projection, spheres of the space are projected as ellipses on the drawing plane, and not as circles as you would expect them from an orthogonal projection.

Oblique drawing is also the crudest "3D" drawing method but the easiest to master. Oblique is not really a 3D system but a 2 dimensional view of an object with 'forced depth'. One way to draw using an oblique view is to draw the side of the object you are looking at in two dimensions, i.e. flat, and then draw the other sides at an angle of 45 degrees, but instead of drawing the sides full size they are only drawn with half the depth creating 'forced depth' - adding an element of realism to the object. Even with this 'forced depth', oblique drawings look very unconvincing to the eye. For this reason oblique is rarely used by professional designers and engineers.

Oblique pictorial

In an oblique pictorial drawing, the angles displayed among the axes, as well as the foreshortening factors (scale) are arbitrary. More precisely, any given set of three coplanar segments originating from the same point may be construed as forming some oblique perspective of three sides of a cube. This result is known as Pohlke's theorem, from the German mathematician Pohlke, who published it in the early 19th century.[1]

The resulting distortions make the technique unsuitable for formal, working drawings. Nevertheless, the distortions are partially overcome by aligning one plane of the image parallel to the plane of projection. Doing so creates a true shape image of the chosen plane. This specific category of oblique projections, whereby lengths along the directions x and y are preserved, but lengths along direction z are drawn at angle using a reduction factor is very much in use for industrial drawings.

  • Cavalier projection is the name of such a projection, where the length along the z axis remains unscaled.[2]
  • Cabinet projection, popular in furniture illustrations, is an example of such a technique, wherein the receding axis is scaled to half-size[2] (sometimes also two thirds the original[citation needed]).

Cavalier projections

In cavalier projection (sometimes cavalier perspective or high view point) a point of the object is represented by three coordinates, x, y and z. On the drawing, it is represented by only two coordinates, x" and y". On the flat drawing, two axes, x and z on the figure, are perpendicular and the length on these axes are drawn with a 1:1 scale; it is thus similar to the dimetric projections, although it is not an orthographic projection, as the third axis, here y, is drawn in diagonal, making an arbitrary angle with the x" axis, usually 30 or 45°. The length of the third axis is not scaled.[3][4]


It is very easy to draw, especially with pen and paper. It is thus often used when a figure must be drawn by hand, e.g. on a black board (lesson, oral examination).

The representation was initially used for military fortifications. In French, the « cavalier » (literally rider, horseman, see Cavalry) is an artificial hill behind the walls that allows to see the enemy above the walls.[5] The cavalier perspective was the way the things were seen from this high point. Some also explain the name by the fact that it was the way a rider could see a small object on the ground from his horseback.[6]

Cabinet projection

The term cabinet projection (sometimes cabinet perspective) stems from its use in illustrations by the furniture industry.[citation needed] Like cavalier perspective, one face of the projected object is parallel to the viewing plane, and the third axis is projected as going off in an angle (typical 30° or 45°). Unlike cavalier projection, where the third axis keeps its length, with cabinet projection the length of the receding lines is cut in half.

Mathematical formula

As formula, if the plane facing the viewer is xy, and the receding axis is z, then a point P is projected like this:

 P \begin{pmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix}
x + 0.5 \cdot z \cdot \cos \alpha \\ y + 0.5 \cdot z \cdot \sin \alpha \\  0 \end{pmatrix}

Where α is the mentioned angle.

The transformation matrix is:

 P = \begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 0.5 \cdot \cos \alpha \\
0 & 1 & 0.5 \cdot \sin \alpha \\
0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}

Examples

Besides technical drawing and illustrations, video games (especially those preceding the advent of 3D games) also often use a form of oblique projection. Examples include SimCity, Ultima VII, EarthBound, and Paperboy.

See also

References

  1. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Pohlke's Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.
  2. ^ a b Parallel Projections from PlaneView3D Online
  3. ^ Illustrator Draftsman 3 & 2 — Volume 2 Standard Practices and Theory, page 67 from http://www.tpub.com
  4. ^ Ingrid Carlbom, Joseph Paciorek, Planar Geometric Projections and Viewing Transformations, ACM Computing Surveys, v.10 n.4, pp. 465–502, Dec. 1978
  5. ^ Etymologie des maths, letter C (French)
  6. ^ DES QUESTIONS D’ORIGINES (French)

Further reading

  • Foley, James (1997). Computer Graphics. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0201848406. 
  • Ingrid Carlbom, Joseph Paciorek, Planar Geometric Projections and Viewing Transformations, ACM Computing Surveys, v.10 n.4, p. 465-502, Dec. 1978

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Oblique projection — Projection Pro*jec tion, n. [L. projectio: cf. F. projection.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act of throwing or shooting forward. [1913 Webster] 2. A jutting out; also, a part jutting out, as of a building; an extension beyond something else. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • oblique projection — pražulnioji projekcija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. oblique projection vok. schiefwinklige Projektion, f rus. косая проекция, f; косоугольная проекция, f pranc. projection oblique, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • oblique projection — A map projection with the axis inclined at an oblique angle to the plane of the equator. Oblique gnomonic projection …   Aviation dictionary

  • oblique projection — noun 1. : a representation in a mechanical drawing of an object usually placed with its front face or with two of its principal axes parallel to a plane of projection by means of lines of projection that make angles of other than 90 degrees with… …   Useful english dictionary

  • oblique projection — Drafting. See under oblique (def. 13). * * * …   Universalium

  • oblique projection — a radiographic projection in which the central ray enters the body or part at an angle to the frontal and medial or axial planes …   Medical dictionary

  • projection — [ prɔʒɛksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1314; lat. projectio, de projectus, p. p. de projicere 1 ♦ Action de jeter, de lancer en avant (⇒ 1. jet; projeter, I ). Projection de liquide, de vapeur. Lancement, jet (de projectiles). Projection de pierres, d obus.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Oblique — may refer to: Oblique angle, in geometry, an angle that is not a multiple of 90 degrees Oblique angle, synonym for Dutch angle, a cinematographic technique Oblique (album), by jazz vibraphonist Bobby Hutcherson Oblique banded rattail, a fish also …   Wikipedia

  • Projection — Pro*jec tion, n. [L. projectio: cf. F. projection.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act of throwing or shooting forward. [1913 Webster] 2. A jutting out; also, a part jutting out, as of a building; an extension beyond something else. [1913 Webster] 3. The… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • projection — Pro*jec tion, n. [L. projectio: cf. F. projection.] [1913 Webster] 1. The act of throwing or shooting forward. [1913 Webster] 2. A jutting out; also, a part jutting out, as of a building; an extension beyond something else. [1913 Webster] 3. The… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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