# Analytic and enumerative statistical studies

﻿
Analytic and enumerative statistical studies

In "Some Theory of Sampling" (1950, Chapter 7), W. Edwards Deming introduced concepts he labeled Analytic and enumerative statistical studies. In any statistical study the ultimate aim is to provide a rational basis for action. Enumerative and analytic studies differ by where the action is taken. Deming summarized the distinction between enumerative and analytic studies as follows: [Deming, W. Edwards "On probability as a basis for action" The American Statistician, volume 29, 1975]

Enumerative study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the material in the frame being studied.

Analytic study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the process or cause-system that produced the frame being studied. The aim being to improve practice in the future.

(In a statistical study, the frame is the set from which the Sample (statistics) is taken.)

In other words, an enumerative study is a statistical study in which the focus is on judgment of results, and an analytic study is one in which the focus is on improvement of the process or system which created the results being evaluated and which will continue creating results in the future. A statistical study can be enumerative or analytic, but it cannot be both.

This distinction between enumerative and analytic studies is the theory behind the Fourteen Points for Management. Dr. Deming's philosophy is that management should be analytic instead of enumerative. In other words, management should focus on improvement of processes for the future instead of on judgment of current results.

"Use of data requires knowledge about the different sources of uncertainty.Measurement is a process. Is the system of measurement stable or unstable? Useof data requires also understanding of the distinction between enumerative studies and analytic problems."

"The interpretation of results of a test or experiment is something else. It isprediction that a specific change in a process or procedure will be a wise choice, or that no change would be better. Either way the choice is prediction. This is known as an analytic problem, or a problem of inference, prediction." [Deming, W. Edwards "The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education - 1st Edition"]

Statistician Dr. Mike Tveite has pointed out the dangers of attempting to use an enumerative study for prediction.

Notes

* [http://homepage.mac.com/dfkerridge/.Public/DEN/Reality.pdf Statistics and Reality by David and Sarah Kerridge]
* [http://iws.ccccd.edu/rkunz/managedev/PDF/QCTC1303/FundamentalsofStatisticalStudies.pdf Fundamentals of Statistical Studies]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

### Look at other dictionaries:

• Analytic induction — refers to a systematic examination of similarities between various social phenomena in order to develop concepts or ideas. Social scientists doing social research use analytic induction to search for those similarities in broad categories and… …   Wikipedia

• Common-cause and special-cause — Type of variation Synonyms Common cause Chance cause Non assignable cause Noise Natural pattern Special cause Assignable cause Signal Unnatural pattern Common and special causes are the two distinct origins of variation in a process, as defined… …   Wikipedia

• Control chart — One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality First described by Walter A. Shewhart …   Wikipedia

• List of mathematics articles (A) — NOTOC A A Beautiful Mind A Beautiful Mind (book) A Beautiful Mind (film) A Brief History of Time (film) A Course of Pure Mathematics A curious identity involving binomial coefficients A derivation of the discrete Fourier transform A equivalence A …   Wikipedia

• List of statistics topics — Please add any Wikipedia articles related to statistics that are not already on this list.The Related changes link in the margin of this page (below search) leads to a list of the most recent changes to the articles listed below. To see the most… …   Wikipedia

• W. Edwards Deming — Born October 14, 1900(1900 10 14) Sioux City, Iowa, USA …   Wikipedia

• Walter A. Shewhart — Walter Andrew Shewhart (pronounced like Shoe heart , March 18, 1891 March 11, 1967) was an American physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control .W. Edwards Deming said of him:: As a… …   Wikipedia

• Walter A. Shewhart — Archivo:WalterShewhart.gif Walter A. Shewhart Walter Andrew Shewhart (pronunciado como Shu jart , 18 de marzo de 1891 11 de marzo de 1967) fue un físico, ingeniero y estadístico estadunidense, a veces conocido como el padre del control… …   Wikipedia Español

• Combinatorics — is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures. Aspects of combinatorics include counting the structures of a given kind and size (enumerative combinatorics), deciding when certain criteria can be met,… …   Wikipedia

• Job interview — Oakland, California. Hanging Around. The total time spent in actual interviews while hunting a job takes only a small part of the day; unwilling to go home these youths spend most of their day hanging around and talking with other job hunters.… …   Wikipedia