- Elan Valley Reservoirs
The Elan Valley Reservoirs are a chain of man-made lakes and
reservoirs in the Elan Valleyin Powys, Mid Wales(also known as the "Welsh Lake District"), using the rivers Elan and Claerwen. The reservoirs are Claerwen, Craig Goch, Pen-y-Garreg, Garreg Ddu, and Caban Coch.
The work carried carried out over a hundred years ago to build the Elan Valley dams and reservoirs was only part of the huge undertaking. Almost as impressive was the challenge of delivering the enormous quantities of water by gravity alone, across very hilly country and over many river valleys, to a new reservoir on the outskirts of
Birminghamin the West Midlands of England. This involved building a 73 mile long Elan aqueductdown which the water travels at less than 2 miles per hour, taking one and a half days to get to Birmingham.
Elan aqueductdrops only 52m over a length of 118km - a gradient of 1:2300. It runs from the Elan Valley to Frankleyreservoir in Birmingham. There are several signs of the aqueduct between these points, in the form of brick aqueducts, exposed pipelines and red brick valve houses on hillsides [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/619851] .
There are four main dams and reservoirs (constructed 1893-1904 in Elan Valley, and 1946-1952 at Claerwen) with a potential total capacity of nearly 100,000 megalitres [http://www.elanvalley.org.uk] . The dams and reservoirs are:
*Caban Coch with Garreg Ddu - 35,530 megalitre capacity
*Pen-y-garreg - 6,055 megalitre capacity
*Craig Goch - 9,222 megalitre capacity
*Claerwen - 48,300 megalitre capacity.
In addition to the four main dams, there are also three other 'dams' at the site:
*The Dol y Mynach dam - the masonry foundations and the base of this dam were laid in the Claerwen Valley at the time that the Elan Valley dams were being constructed. It was to be one of a series of three dams which were to hold back the waters of the Afon Claerwen making even more water available to the city of Birmingham in future times. The project was never completed but the base was laid 'in advance' because the water level of the Caban Coch would have submerged the site once the reservoir was full. The project became completely redundant when newer materials and superior engineering led to the construction of the Claerwen dam higher up the valley.
*The Nant-y-Gro dam - this small dam was constructed in the early stages of the project to supply water to the navvies village at the site; it was most famously used during the
Second World Warby Sir Barnes Wallisduring trials of the explosive charges he intended to use in the 'bouncing' bombs which later targeted the Ruhrdams.
*The Garreg Ddu dam - although often referred to as a viaduct, the archways of this structure are built on a submerged dam; this hidden dam maintains the level of the reservoir behind it in times of extreme drought, and guarantees water can be extracted at the Foel Tower at sufficient 'height' to enter the gravity driven aqueduct to the
Frankleyreservoir in Birmingham.
The reservoirs were constructed between 1893 and 1904 by the City of Birmingham's Water Department to supply clean water to the
Birminghamarea, by gravityfeed along an aqueductwith a gradientof 1 in 2,300.
Before the construction of the dams, the
standard gauge Elan Valley Railwaywas built to all damsites from a junction of the Mid Wales Railway, at Rhayader. The railwaywas also built along the dams themselves at varying heights, on wooden scaffolding supported by concrete parapets. The railway itself went as far as the never-completed Dolymynach dam (lower down the valley from the later Claerwendam), which had to be built concurrently with the Elan dams as the Caban Coch reservoir would otherwise have flooded this construction site. However, this railway was never subsequently needed, and road transport only was used for construction of the Claerwen dam over 40 years later.
The navvies (construction workers) lived in a village of wooden huts, which had a guard to prevent the illegal importing of liquor. This later became the permanent Elan Village (see
Elan Valley). When construction of the dams was complete, most of the navvies moved on to the Derwent Valley in Derbyshire.
The scheme was opened by
King Edward VIIand Queen Alexandraon 21 July 1904.
World War II
They played an important role in
World War IIwhen the 35 ft. (11 m) high Nant-y-Gro damwas used by Barnes Wallisto test his idea of detonating explosives against a dam wall in order to breach it. These experiments culminated in the Dambusters breaching of the dams in the Ruhr Valley. The remains of the breached Nant-y-Gro dam can still be seen today in the same state as it was left in 1942. The dam is now partially obscured by trees, but its location is marked by an interpretative plaque. The Derwent Damwas also used by the Dambusters for practice, though it was not breached.
After the Dambuster Raid steel cables were placed across Caban Coch reservoir to prevent enemy seaplanes landing on the lake.
Aborted expansion scheme
In the early 1970s it was proposed that the Craig Goch reservoir should be substantially increased in size with a new and higher downstream dam together with another dam to the north-west, impounding water that would otherwise have flowed down the Ystwyth valley. This scheme would have created a huge reservoir dwarfing all others in Mid Wales, and flooding miles of wild upland valleys. The proposals were eventually abandoned in the face of reducing projections for industrial water demand and an increasing awareness of the
environmental issuesthat such an expansion might create.
The reservoirs today
The reservoirs are now owned by Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water.
A scale model of the reservoir network, in the form of ornamental ponds, is in
Cannon Hill Parkin Birmingham.
In popular culture
* Elizabeth Clarke wrote "The Valley" (published by Faber & Faber, 1969) an account of Welsh hill farming life in the valley between the two main periods of construction. Many references are made to the dams, as well as an account of the later enquiry from the hill farmers' point of view.
*Francis Brett Young researched the Elan Valley as the basis for his novel "The House under the Water" [Heinemann, 1932] imagining how the scene may have appeared in 1887.
Reservoirs and dams in the United Kingdom
* (N/A), (1955). "City of Birmingham Waterworks: A Short History of the Development of the Undertaking, with a Description of the Existing Works and Sources of Supply". Birmingham: City of Birmingham, Water Committee. (Note: Published July 1954, on the 50 year
Jubileeof the Elan Supply Scheme).
* Judge, Colin W.  (1997). "The Elan Valley Railway: The Railway of the Birmingham Corporation Waterworks". (OL 71) Headington: The Oakwood Press. (1997: ISBN 0-85361-517-9).
* [http://www.elanvalley.org.uk/dams_and_reservoirs.html About the reservoirs]
* [http://www.thedambusters.org.uk/nantygro.html Dambusters at Nant-y-Gro dam]
* [http://www.gtj.org.uk/item.php?lang=en&id=12318&t=1 Aerial Photo of Claerwen]
* [http://www.cpat.org.uk/projects/longer/histland/elan/evintr.htm Elan Historic Landscape]
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