- Membrane (M-Theory)
theoretical physics, a membrane, brane, or "p"-brane is a spatially extended mathematical concept that appears in string theoryand its relatives ( M-theoryand brane cosmology). The variable "p" refers to the number of spatial dimensionsof the brane. That is, a 0-brane is a zero-dimensional pointlike particle, a 1-brane is a string, a 2-brane is a "membrane", etc. Every "p"-brane sweeps out a ("p"+1)-dimensional "world volume" as it propagates through spacetime.
Originally string theory was a theory of 1-branes called strings. By the mid-1990s it became apparent that the theory could be extended to also include higher dimensional objects. Typically these objects are "non-perturbative" features of the theory (meaning they do not appear in perturbation theory).
Besides the fundamental string (or F-string) of string theory and its
magnetic dual, the NS5-brane, the most important type of branes that appear are the D-branes. Different types of D-branes appear in different theories. Even D"n"-branes for "n" appear in type IIA string theorywhere as the odd D"p"-branes appear in type IIB string theory.
With the development of
M-theory, an extra dimension appeared and the fundamental string of string theory became a 2-dimensional membrane called an M2-brane(or supermembrane). Its magnetical dual is an M5-brane. The various branes of string theory are thought to be related to these higher dimensional M5-branes wrapped on various cycles.
The M-theory states that strings of energy could grow into larger membranes or branes up to even the size of the universe.It also goes on to state that these strings need to vibrate in more than three dimensions (6) plus another dimension - time.
Cyclic Universe Theory
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