Nikolay Semyonov


Nikolay Semyonov
Nikolay Semyonov

Semyonov (right) and Kapitsa, portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921.
Born April 15 (April 3, O.S.), 1896
Saratov
Died September 25, 1986(1986-09-25) (aged 90)
Nationality Russian
Fields physicist and chemist
Doctoral advisor Abram Ioffe
Known for chemical transformation
Notable awards Nobel Prize in chemistry 1956

Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов) (April 15 (April 3, Old Style), 1896 – September 25, 1986) was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist. Semyonov was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the mechanism of chemical transformation.

Contents

Life

Semyonov was born in Saratov and graduated from the department of physics of Petrograd University (1913–1917), where he was a student of Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe. In 1918, he moved to Samara, where he was enlisted into Kolchak's White Army during Russian Civil War.

In 1920, he returned to Petrograd and took charge of the electron phenomena laboratory of the Petrograd Physico-Technical Institute. He also became he vice-director of the intstitute. In 1921, he married philologist Maria Boreishe-Liverovsky (student of Zhirmunsky). She died two years later. In 1923, Nikolay married Maria's niece Natalia Nikolayevna Burtseva. She brought Nikolay a son (Yuri) and a daughter (Lyudmila).

During that difficult time, Semyonov, together with Pyotr Kapitsa, discovered a way to measure the magnetic field of an atomic nucleus (1922). Later the experimental setup was improved by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach and became known as Stern-Gerlach experiment.

In 1925, Semyonov, together with Yakov Frenkel, studied kinetics of condensation and adsorption of vapors. In 1927, he studied ionisation in gases and published an important book, Chemistry of the Electron. In 1928, he, together with Vladimir Fock, created a theory of thermal disruptive discharge of dielectrics.

He lectured at the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute and was appointed Professor in 1928. In 1931, he organized the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences (which has moved to Chernogolovka in 1943) and became its first director. In 1932, he became a full member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.

Significant works

Semyonov's outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory to varied reactions (1934–1954) and, more significantly, to combustion processes. He proposed a theory of degenerate branching, which led to a better understanding of the phenomena associated with the induction periods of oxidation processes.

Semyonov wrote two important books outlining his work. Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions was published in 1934 with an English edition in 1935. It was the first book in the U.S.S.R. to develop a detailed theory of unbranched and branched chain reactions in chemistry. Some Problems of Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, first published in 1954, was revised in 1958; there are also English, American, German, and Chinese editions. In 1956, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (together with Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood) for this work.

Honours and awards

Semyonov was also an Honorary Doctor of several universities: Oxford (1960), Brussels (1962), London (1965), Budapest Technical University (1965), Polytechnic Institute of Milan (1964) and others.

References

  1. ^ "1956 Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry : Soviet Scientist Nikolai Semyonov Dies". Los Angeles Times. 1 October 1986. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov". encyclopedia.com. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Nikolai_Nikolaevich_Semenov.aspx. Retrieved 10 Oct 2011. 

External links

Media related to Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov at Wikimedia Commons


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Semyonov — (masculine), also transliterated as Semenov, Semenoff, and Semionov ( ru. Семёнов), or Semyonova (Semenova, Semionova) (feminine) is a common Russian last name. Its etymology is the son of Semyon or belonging to Semyon , where Semyon is a Russian …   Wikipedia

  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov — Nikolaï Semionov Nikolaï Nikolaïevitch Semionov (en russe Николай Николаевич Семёнов) né le 15 avril (3 avril selon l ancien calendrier julien) 1896 et mort le 25 septembre 1986, est l un des fondateurs de la chimie physique, créateur de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov — Nikolaï Semionov Nikolaï Nikolaïevitch Semionov (en russe Николай Николаевич Семёнов) né le 15 avril (3 avril selon l ancien calendrier julien) 1896 et mort le 25 septembre 1986, est l un des fondateurs de la chimie physique, créateur de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nikolay Shirshov — Personal information Date of birth 22 June 1974 …   Wikipedia

  • Semyonov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) — Semyonov also spelled Semë nov born April 15, 1896, Saratov, Russia died Sept. 25, 1986, Moscow, U.S.S.R. Russian physical chemist. His specialty was the mechanisms of chain and branched chain chemical reactions, which he showed were the norm in… …   Universalium

  • Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov — Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (En idioma ruso: Николай Николаевич Семёнов) Químico ruso. Nació en Saratov en abril de 1896. Premio Nóbel de Química en 1956, compartido con Cyril Norman Hinshelwood. Director del Instituto de Química Física de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Nikolay — (as used in expressions) Nikolay Nikolayevich Bukharin Nikolay Ivanovich Bulganin Nikolay Aleksandrovich Chernyshevsky Nikolay Gavrilovich Danilevsky Nikolay Yakovlevich Giers Nikolay Karlovich Gogol Nikolay Vasilyevich Ignatyev Nikolay Pavlovich …   Universalium

  • Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich — ▪ Russian chemist Semyonov also spelled  Semënov   born April 15 [April 3, Old Style], 1896, Saratov, Russia died Sept. 25, 1986, Moscow, U.S.S.R.       Soviet physical chemist who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Sir Cyril… …   Universalium

  • Nikolai Semyonov — Nikolaï Semionov Nikolaï Nikolaïevitch Semionov (en russe Николай Николаевич Семёнов) né le 15 avril (3 avril selon l ancien calendrier julien) 1896 et mort le 25 septembre 1986, est l un des fondateurs de la chimie physique, créateur de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • List of Russian people — The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.