- P-36 Hawk
name =P-36 Hawk/Hawk 75/Mohawk
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
first flight =May 1935
retired =1954, Argentina
primary user =
United States Army Air Corps
more users =
Finnish Air Force French Air Force Royal Air Force
number built = 245 (P-36) 600 (including Hawk 75 variants)
unit cost =
variants with their own articles =
The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also known as Curtiss Hawk Model 75, was a U.S.-built fighter aircraft of the
1930s. A contemporary of the Hawker Hurricaneand Messerschmitt Bf 109, it was one of the first fighters of the new generation – sleek monoplanes with extensive use of metal in construction and powerful piston engines. Obsolete at the onset of World War IIand best known as the predecessor of the Curtiss P-40, the P-36 saw only limited combat with the United States Army Air Forcesbut was extensively used by the French Air Forceand also by British Commonwealth and Chinese air units. Several dozen also fought in the Finnish Air Forceagainst the Soviet Red Air Force. With around 1,000 aircraft built, the P-36 was a major commercial success for Curtiss. This article also covers the YP-37 and the XP-42 prototypes based on the P-36.
Design and development
The Curtiss Model 75 was a private venture by the company, designed by former
Northropengineer Donovan Berlin. The first prototype constructed in 1934 featured all-metal construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, a Wright XR-1670-5 radial engine developing 900 hp (671 kW), and typical U.S. Army Air Corpsarmament of one 0.30-cal. and one 0.50-cal. machine guns firing through the propeller arc. Also typical of the time was the total absence of armor or self-sealing fuel tanks. The distinctive landing gear which rotated 90 degrees to fold the main wheels flat into the thin trailing portion of the wing was actually a Boeing-patented design for which Curtiss had to pay royalties.
The prototype flew in May 1935, reaching 281 mph (452 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,050 m) during early test flights. On
27 May 1935, the prototype was flown to Wright Field, Ohio, to compete in the USAAC fly-off for a new single-seat fighter but the contest was delayed because the Seversky entry crashed on the way to the contest. Curtiss took advantage of the delay to replace the unreliable engine with a Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone producing 950 hp (709 kW) and to rework the fuselage, adding the distinctive scalloped rear windows to improve rear visibility. The new prototype was designated Model 75B with the R-1670 version retroactively designated Model 75D. The fly-off finally took place in April 1936. Unfortunately, the new engine failed to deliver its rated power and the aircraft attained only 285 mph (460 km/h).
Although its competitor, the
Seversky P-35, also underperformed and was more expensive, it was still declared the winner and awarded a contract for 77 aircraft. Then, on 16 June 1936, Curtiss received an order from USAAC for three prototypes designated Y1P-36. The USAAC was concerned about political turmoil in Europe and about Seversky's ability to deliver P-35s in a reasonable timeframe and therefore wanted a backup fighter. The Y1P-36 (Model 75E) was powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine producing 900 hp (671 kW) and further enlarged scalloped rear canopy. The new aircraft performed so well that it won the 1937 USAAC competition with an order for 210 P-36A fighters.
In early 1937, the USAAC ordered Curtiss to adapt one P-36 to the new liquid-cooled turbo-supercharged
Allison V-1710engine with 1,150 hp (858 kW). Designated XP-37, the aircraft used the original Model 75 airframe with radiators mounted on the sides of the fuselage around the engine. The cockpit was moved far to the rear to make room for the radiators and to balance the aircraft. The aircraft flew in April 1937, reaching 340 mph (547 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Although the turbo-supercharger was extremely unreliable and visibility from the cockpit on takeoff and landing was virtually nonexistent, the USAAC was sufficiently intrigued by the promised performance to order 13 service test YP-37s. Featuring improved aerodynamics and a more reliable turbo-supercharger, the aircraft first flew in June 1939. However, the powerplant remained unreliable and the project was cancelled in favor of another Curtiss design, the P-40.
In an attempt to improve the aerodynamics of the air-cooled piston engines, the fourth production P-36A (serial 38-004), designated the XP-42, was equipped with a long streamlined cowling resembling that of a liquid-cooled engine. Twelve different designs were tried with little success - although the aircraft was faster than a standard P-36A, engine cooling problems were never resolved. Since the new P-40 was faster, the project was cancelled. Late in its service life, the sole XP-42 was fitted with an all-moving tailplane and used to study that control configuration.
Argentina bought a number of the simplified, fixed landing gear Hawk 75Os, (intended for rough-field operations and ease of maintenance) and purchased a manufacturing license for the type. Argentinian Hawks remained in service until 1954.
In March 1942, 10 USAAC P-36As were transferred to Brazil.
Royal Air Forcealso displayed interest in the aircraft. Comparison of a borrowed French Hawk 75A-2 with a Supermarine SpitfireMk I revealed that the Hawk had several advantages over the early variant of the iconic British fighter. The Hawk was found to have lighter controls than the Spitfire at speeds over 300 mph (480 km/h), especially in diving attacks, and was easier to maneuver in a dogfight (thanks to the less sensitive elevator) and better all-around visibility. The Hawk was also easier to control on takeoff and landing. Not surprisingly, the Spitfire's superior acceleration and top speed ultimately gave it the advantage of being able to engage and leave combat at will.
Although Britain decided not to purchase the aircraft, they soon came in possession of 229 Hawks comprised of diverted shipments to occupied France and aircraft flown by escaping French pilots. The aircraft received the designations Mohawk I through IV, mirroring French Hawk 75A-1 through A-4, and were fitted with 0.303-cal.
Vickers Kmachine guns and conventional throttles (forward to increase power).
Although they were considered obsolete, a number saw service with the RAF and
Royal Indian Air Force(RIAF) in India and Burma. In April 1941, the British government of India ordered 48 Cyclone-powered Mohawk IVz (Hawk 75A) for the RIAF, to be built by Hindustan Aircraft. The first such machine completed was test flown on 31 July 1942. However, only four additional aircraft were completed before the project was abandoned. The Indian-built machines were used by RAF/RIAF units. Similarly, Chinese license production of the Hawk 75A-5 was moved to India, and these machines were also absorbed into RAF as Mohawk IVs. The only British Commonwealth units to see combat in Mohawks were No. 5 Squadron RAF, No. 146 Squadron RAFand No. 155 Squadron RAF. The type was retired by the RAF/RIAF in 1944.
South African Air Forcereceived 72 "French" Mohawks, which it used for home defence, until they were replaced by P-40s.
The prototype of the Hawk 75H - a simplified version with fixed landing gear, like the 75O - was eventually sold to the Chinese Nationalist government who presented it to
Claire L. Chennaultfor personal use. China also received two similar demonstrators, the Hawk 75Q. They also used a number of simplified Hawk 75Ms against the Japanese. The Hawk 75A-5 was built under license in China, but production was later moved to India, and these machines were absorbed into the RAF as the Mohawk IV.
After the fall of France, Germany agreed to sell captured Curtiss Hawk fighters to Finland in October 1940. In total, 44 captured aircraft of five subtypes were sold to Finland with three deliveries from
23 June 1941to 5 January 1944. [http://www.sci.fi/~ambush/faf/fafincolor.html Curtiss Hawk 75A] Backwoods landing strip - Finnish Air Force aircraft ] Not all were from the French stocks, but some were initially sold to Norway and captured in their wooden crates when the Germans conquered the country. The aircraft were given serial codes CU-551 to CU-585.
In Finnish service, the Hawk was well-liked, affectionately called "Sussu" ("Sweetheart"). The Finnish Air Force enjoyed success with the type, credited with 190 1/3 kills by 58 pilots, between 16 July 1941 and 27 July 1944, for the loss of 15 of their own. Finnish ace
Kyösti Karhilascored 13 1/4 of his 32 victories in the Hawk, while the top Hawk ace K. Tervo scored 15 3/4 victories. The Hawks were flown by "Lentolaivue" 32 throughout their wartime operational service.
The Finnish Hawks were initially armed with either four or six 7.5 mm machine guns. While sufficient during the early phase of
Continuation War, the increasing speeds and armor of Soviet aircraft soon showed this armament was not powerful enough. From 1942 the State Aircraft Factoryreplaced the fuselage machine guns with either one or two 12.7 mm Colt machine guns and installed two or four 7.7 mm Browning machine guns to each wing. The 12.7 mm Berezin UBor LKk/42 heavy machine guns were also used. The installation of heavier armament did not cause changes to the very good flying characteristics of the fighter but the armament was much more powerful against Soviet planes. The Finnish Hawks were also equipped with Revi 3D or C/12D gunsight.
Even before the P-36A entered production, the French Air Force entered negotiations with Curtiss for delivery of 300 aircraft. The negotiating process ended up being very drawn-out because the cost of the Curtiss fighters was double that of the French
Morane-Saulnier MS.406and Bloch MB.150, and the delivery schedule was deemed too slow. Since the USAAC was unhappy with the rate of domestic deliveries and believed that export aircraft would slow things down even more, it actively opposed the sale. Eventually, it took direct intervention from U.S. President Franklin Rooseveltto give the French test pilot Michel Detroyata chance to fly the Y1P-36.
Detroyat's enthusiasm, problems with the MB.150, and the pressure of continuing German rearmament finally forced France to purchase 100 aircraft and 173 engines. The first Hawk 75A-1 arrived in France in December 1938 and began entering service in March 1939. After the first few examples, aircraft were delivered in pieces and assembled in France by the
Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre. Officially designated Curtiss H75-C1 (the "Hawk" name was not used in France), the aircraft were powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC-G engines with 900 hp (671 kW) and had metric, translated instruments, a seat for French dorsal parachutes, a French-style throttle which operated in reverse from U.S. and British aircraft (e.g. full throttle was to the rear rather than to the front) and armament of four 7.5 mm FN-Browning machine guns. The aircraft evolved through several modifications, the most significant being the installation of the Wright R-1820 Cyclone engine. This variant, designated as Curtiss H751-C1, saw little operational use due to its late delivery and reliability problems with the new engine. A total of 416 H75s were delivered to France before the German occupation [Persyn 2007] .
8 September 1939, aircraft from Groupe de Chasse II/4 were credited with shooting down two Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109Es, the first Allied air victory of World War IIon the Western front. During 1939–1940, French pilots claimed 230 confirmed and 80 probable victories in H75s against only 29 aircraft lost in aerial combat. Of the 11 French aces of the early part of the war, seven flew H75s. The leading ace of the time was Lt. Edmond Marin la Mesléewith 15 confirmed and five probable victories in the type. H75-equipped squadrons were evacuated to French North Africabefore the Armistice to avoid capture by the Germans. While under the Vichy government, these units clashed with British aircraft over Mers el-Kébir and Dakar. During Operation Torchin North Africa, French H75s fought against U.S. Navy F4F Wildcats, losing 15 aircraft to seven shot down American planes. From late 1942 on, the Allies started re-equipping French units formerly under Vichy and the H75s were replaced by P-40s and P-39s.
Ten Hawk 75A-9s were delivered to Persia, but were captured by the British while still in crates. These were then used by the RAF in India as Mohawk IVs.
Netherlands East Indies
In October 1939, the Netherlands East Indies government ordered 24 Hawk 75A-7s, powered by 1200 hp Cyclones. They had 4 x 7.7 mm machine guns (two in the nose and one in each wing) and could carry 2 x 100-pound bombs. The fighters were shipped in 1940 (and were almost rerouted to the Netherlands, when Germany invaded) and were used extensively leading up to the Japanese attack. However, by that time the aircraft had flown so many hours, the engines were worn out.
These Dutch Hawks formed 1-VlG IV, or Vliegtuiggroep IV, 1e afdeling (1st Squadron, Airgroup IV) of the ML-KNIL and some with 1-VlG V. They saw action over Malacca, Sumatra and Java, successfully bombing a railroad and intercepting bombers. They also participated in the extensive dogfights over
Surabaya, where US, RAF and ML-KNIL aircraft together fought Japanese bombers and fighters.
Norway ordered 24 Twin Wasp-powered Hawk 75A-6s, of which 19 were delivered and seven assembled at the time of the German invasion. None of the aircraft were combat-ready. The disassembled aircraft were disabled by a single customs employee who smashed the instruments and cut all the wires he could reach. Norwegian Hawks captured by the Germans were part of the batch sent to Finland. Norway also ordered 36 Cyclone-powered Hawk 75A-8s, most (30) of which were delivered to a Norwegian training base (established by the exile-government in London and named "
Little Norway") near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, as advanced trainers. Still later, they were resold to the U.S. and redesignated as the P-36G model.
In 1943 the U.S. sent 28 Hawks to Peru under the
Lend-Leaseagreement. These were ex-Norwegian P-36Gs that had served in Canada.
Twelve British Mohawks ended up in Portugal, after they became obsolete in the RAF.
A few Hawk 75Ns were used by Thailand during the
French-Thai War. They also fought at the Battle of Prachuab Khirikhanagainst Japanese forces during the Japanese Invasion of Thailand.
The first production P-36As were delivered to the 20th Pursuit Group at
Barksdale Fieldin Louisianain April 1938. The aircraft's service history was marred by numerous teething problems with engine exhaust, skin buckling over landing gear, and weak points in the airframe, severely restricting the performance envelope. By the time these issues were resolved, the P-36 was considered obsolete and was relegated to training units and overseas detachments at Albrook Fieldin the Canal Zone, Elmendorf Fieldin Alaska, and Wheeler Fieldin Hawaii. The only combat with U.S.-operated P-36s took place during the Pearl Harborattack on 7 December 1941. Five of the 39 P-36A Mohawks at Pearl Harbor were able to take off during the attack and were credited with shooting down two Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 fighters for the loss of one P-36, the first U.S. aerial victories of World War II. [World War II in the Pacific: [http://www.ww2pacific.com/aaf41.html Aircraft at Pearl Harbor] ]
* Model 75A - company-owned demonstrator aircraft flown with several engine fits
* Model 75B - prototype with
* Model 75D - first prototype,
* Model 75H - internal company designation for a simplified export version with fixed landing gear, two slightly differing aircraft built, first sold to China, second to Argentina
* Model 75J - company-owned 75A temporarily fitted with an external supercharger
* Model 75K - Unbuilt version, it was going to be powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-02180 Twin Hornet engine.
* Model 75P - production P-36A (serial 38-010) fitted with Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engine, prototype for
* Model 75R - company-owned 75A temporarily fitted with R-1830-SC2-G engine with turbosupercharger, attained 330 mph (530 km/h) but proved complex and unreliable
* Y1P-36 (Model 75E) - USAAC prototype,
Pratt & Whitney R-1830engine
* P-36A (Model 75L) - USAAC version, P-26A-3 mounted four 0.30 in machine guns in the wings in addition to fuselage armament
* P-36B - production P-36A fitted with an R-1830-25 engine producing 1,100 hp (820 kW), reached 313 mph (504 km/h), returned to original P-36A configuration
* P-36C - an additional 0.30 in machine gun installed in each wing with external ammunition boxes under the wings, R-1830-17 engine with 1,200 hp (895 kW), last 30 production aircraft were completed as P-36Cs
* XP-36D - production P-36A modified with 2 x 0.50 in machine guns in the nose and 4x 0.30 in machine guns in the wings
* XP-36E - production P-36A armed with 4 x 0.30 in machine guns in the wings, retained standard fuselage guns
* XP-36F - production P-36A fitted with 2 x 23 mm
Madsen cannons under the wings, reverted to P-36A because guns imposed an unacceptable performance penalty with top speed of only 265 mph (427 km/h)
* P-36G - Hawk 75A-8 used by Norway for training in Canada, later to Peru. Wright R-1820-G205A engine with 1,200 hp (895 kW).
* Hawk 75A-1 - First production batch for France, 4 x 7.5 mm machine guns, R-1830-SC-G engine with 900 hp (671 kW), 100 built
* Hawk 75A-2 - Second production batch for France, either R-1830-SC-G engine or 1,050 hp (783 kW) R-1830-SC3-G engine, 6 x 7.5 mm machine guns, 100 built
* Hawk 75A-3 - Third production batch for France, similar with Hawk 75A-2 [Persyn 2007] , 135 built
* Hawk 75A-4 - Last production batch for France, Hawk 75A-2 with Wright R-1820-G205A Cyclone engine with 1,200 hp (895 kW). 285 built, 81 delivered to France, others to Great Britain as Mohawk IV
* Hawk 75A-5 - built under license in China (production was later moved to India), absorbed into RAF as Mohawk IV
* Hawk 75A-6 - version for Norway, captured aircraft sent to Finland
* Hawk 75A-7 - version for Netherlands East Indies: 1,200 hp Cyclone, 4 x 7.7 mm (two in nose, one in each wing) and 2 x 100 lb bombs.
* Hawk 75A-8 - Export version for Norway. Later redesignated P-36G.
* Hawk 75A-9 - 10 aircraft delivered to Persia, captured still in crates and used by RAF in India as Mohawk IVs
* Hawk 75M - simplified version with fixed landing gear and Wright R-1820 Cyclone engine for China, built by both Curtiss and Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company in China
* Hawk 75N - simplified version for Siam (Thailand)
* Hawk 75O - simplified version for Argentine, 29 built by Curtiss with additional 200 built under license locally by Fabrica Militar de Aviones
* Hawk 75Q - two additional simplified demonstrators for China
* XP-37 - Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engine, cockpit moved to the rear of the fuselage
* YP-37 - service test version of XP-37, 13 built
* XP-42 (Model 75S) - testbed for streamlining cowlings around air-cooled engines
jet or prop?=prop
plane or copter?=plane
include 'armament' field?=yes
include 'capacity' field?=no
switch order of units?=no
length main=28 ft 6 in
length alt=8.7 m
span main=37 ft 1 in
span alt=11.3 m
height main=9 ft 2 in
height alt=2.8 m
area main=235.6 ft²
area alt=21.9 m²
empty weight main=4,665 lb
empty weight alt=2,116 kg
loaded weight main=5,867 lb
loaded weight alt=2,661 kg
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main= lb
max takeoff weight alt= kg
Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp
type of prop=air-cooled radial piston engine
number of props=1
power main=1,050 hp
power alt=783 kW
max speed main=322 mph
max speed alt=518 km/h
cruise speed main=260 mph
cruise speed alt=420 km/h
range main=650 mi
range alt=1,046 km
ceiling main=32,340 ft
ceiling alt=9,860 m
climb rate main=2,500 ft/min
climb rate alt=13 m/s
loading main=25 lb/ft²
loading alt=122 kg/m²
power/mass main=0.18 hp/lb
power/mass alt=0.29 kW/kg
* 1 × 0.30 in machine gun
* 1 × 0.50 in machine gun
* Bowers, Peter M. "Curtiss Aircraft, 1907-1947". Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979. ISBN 0-87021-152-8.
* Bowers, Peter M. "The Curtiss Hawk 75: Aircraft in Profile No. 80". London: Profile Publications, 1966.
* Bridgwater, H.C. "Combat Colours Number 3: The Curtiss P-36 and P-40 in USAAC/ USAAF Service 1939-1945". Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, UK: Guideline Publications Ltd., 2001. ISBN 0-9539040-5-9.
* Fleischer, Seweryn and Jiri Chodil. "Curtiss P-36 Hawk, Cz.3 (Monograpfie Lotnicze 63)" (in Polish). Gdańsk, Poland: AJ-Press, 2000. ISBN 83-72370-38-9.
* Green, William. "War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Four: Fighters". London: MacDonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961 (Sixth impression 1969). ISBN 0-356-01448-7.
* Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: US Army Air Force Fighters, Part 1". London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-356-08218-0.
* Persyn, Lionel. "Les Curtiss H-75 de l'armée de l'Air". Outreau, France: Éditions Lela Presse, 2007. ISBN 2-914017-46-4
* Rys, Marek. "Curtiss P-36 Hawk, Cz.1 (Monograpfie Lotnicze 61)" (in Polish). Gdańsk, Poland: AJ-Press, 2000. ISBN 83-72370-36-2.
* Rys, Marek and Seweryn Fleischer. "Curtiss P-36 Hawk, Cz.2 (Monograpfie Lotnicze 62)" (in Polish). Gdańsk, Poland: AJ-Press, 2000. ISBN 83-72370-37-0.
* Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. "United States Military Aircraft Since 1909". Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1989. ISBN 0-87474-880-1.
* [http://www.fighter-collection.com/pages/aircraft/hawk/index.php The Fighter Collection Curtiss 75-Hawk ]
* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2252 Curtiss YP-37]
* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=2244 Curtiss XP-42]
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