Language proficiency


Language proficiency

Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. As theories vary among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency [http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/eacwest/elptests.htm#Definitions] , there is little consistency as to how different organizations classify it. Additionally, fluency and language competence are generally recognized as being related, but separate controversial subjects. In predominant frameworks in the United States, proficient speakers demonstrate both accuracy and fluency, and use a variety of discourse strategies [http://lauder.wharton.upenn.edu/pdf/OPI_Guidelines.pdf] . Thus, a high number of native speakers of a language can be fluent without being considered proficient.

Organizations

ACTFL

The ACTFL distinguishes between proficiency and performance. In part, ACTFL's definition of proficiency is derived from mandates issued by the U.S. government, declaring that a limited English proficient student is one who comes from a non-English background and "who has sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language and whose difficulties may deny such an individual the opportunity to learn successfully in classrooms where the language of instruction is English or to participate fully in our society." (ibid.)

ACTFL views "performance" as being the combined effect of all three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational.

Proficiency frameworks

Please note that test scores may not correlate reliably, as different understandings of proficiency lead to different types of assessment.
* FSI Test (Foreign service institute) Scores range from 0 to 5+. [http://www.utm.edu/staff/globeg/ilrhome.shtml] "(deprecated)"
* Interagency Language Roundtable Score range from 0 to 5. [http://www.utm.edu/staff/globeg/ilrhome.shtml] "(evolved from FSI)"
* Language Proficiency Index
* ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines ACTFL recognises ten different levels of proficiency: "novice", "intermediate", "advanced", and "superior", of which the first three are each subdivided into "low", "mid", and "high".
* Common European Framework of Reference for Languages CEF recognises six levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2

Proficiency tests

* Defense Language Proficiency Tests
* General English Proficiency Test
* Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì (汉语水平考试)
* Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers
* University of Cambridge ESOL examination
* Japanese Language Proficiency Test (日本語能力試験)
* Examination for Japanese University Admission (日本留学試験)
* TOEFL (Test Of English as a Foreign Language)
* TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication)
* TEPS (Test of English Proficiency developed by Seoul National University)
* Test de français international
* Test de connaissance du français
* UBELT (University of Bath English Language Test)

See also:

Professional organisations

* Alliance française
* American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
* Association of Language Testers in Europe
* Foreign service institute
* Goethe-Institut
* UCLES
* UNIcert
* [http://www.bath.ac.uk/ubelt/ UBELT]

ee also

* Fluency


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