- Pythagorean tuning
Pythagorean tuning is a system of
musical tuningin which the frequencyrelationships of all intervals are based on the ratio 3:2. Its name comes from medieval texts which attribute its discovery to Pythagoras, but its use has been documented as long ago as 3500 B.C. in Babylonian texts. [West, M.L., "The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic Texts", Music & Letters, Vol. 75, no. 2., May, 1994, pp. 161-179] It is the oldest way of tuning the 12-note chromatic scale.
Pythagorean tuning is based on a stack of
perfect fifths, each tuned in the ratio 3:2, the next simplest ratio after 2:1, which is the ratio of an octave. The two notes G and D, for example, are tuned so that their frequencies are in the ratio 3:2 — if G is tuned to 200 Hz, then the D is tuned to 300 Hz. The A a fifth above that D is also tuned in the ratio 3:2 — with the D at 300 Hz, this puts the A at 450 Hz, 9:4 above the original G. When describing tunings, it is usual to speak of all notes as being within an octaveof each other, and as this A is over an octave above the original G, it is usual to halve its frequency to move it down an octave. Therefore, the A is tuned to 225 Hz, a 9:8 above the G. The E a 3:2 above that A is tuned to the ratio 27:16 and so on, until the starting note, G, is arrived at again.
In applying this tuning to the
chromatic scale, however, a problem arises: . Because of this, the G arrived at after twelve fifths is about a quarter of a semitonesharper than the G used to begin the process. The table below (starting at E flat) illustrates this, showing the note name, the ratio above D, and the value in cents above the D for each note in the chromatic scale. The cent values of the same notes in equal temperamentare also given for comparison (marked in the table below as "et-Cents").
In order to keep the ratios in this table relatively simple, fifths are tuned "down" from D as well as "up". The first note in the
circle of fifthsgiven here is E flat (equivalent to D#), from which five perfect fifths are tuned before arriving at D, the nominal unison note. Middle C(Base tone in this scale) is calculated from A440 (which gives C1≈261.625565)
major scaleobtained from this tuning is
In equal temperament, pairs of
enharmonicnotes such as E flat and D sharp are thought of as being the same note — however, as the above table indicates, in Pythagorean tuning, they theoretically have different ratios, and are at a different frequency. This discrepancy, of about 23.5 cents, or one quarter of a semitone, is known as a " Pythagorean comma".
To get around this problem, Pythagorean tuning uses the above 12 notes from E flat to D sharp shown above, and then places above the D sharp another E flat, starting the sequence again. This leaves the interval D#—Eb sounding badly out of tune, meaning that any music which combines those two notes is unplayable in this tuning. A very out of tune interval such as this one is known as a "
wolf interval". In the case of Pythagorean tuning, all the fifths are 701.96 cents wide, in the exact ratio 3:2, except the wolf fifth, which is only 678.49 cents wide, nearly a quarter of a semitoneflatter.
If the notes D# and Eb need to be sounded together, the position of the wolf fifth can be changed (for example, the above table could run from A to E, making that the wolf interval instead of Eb to D#). However, there will always be one wolf fifth in Pythagorean tuning, making it impossible to play in all keys in tune.
Because of the wolf interval, this tuning is rarely used nowadays, although it is thought to have been widespread. In music which does not change key very often, or which is not very harmonically adventurous, the wolf interval is unlikely to be a problem, as not all the possible fifths will be heard in such pieces.
Because fifths in Pythagorean tuning are in the simple ratio of 3:2, they sound very "smooth" and consonant. The thirds, by contrast, which are in the relatively complex ratios of 81:64 (for major thirds) and 32:27 (for minor thirds), sound less smooth. For this reason, Pythagorean tuning is particularly well suited to music which treats fifths as consonances, and thirds as dissonances. In western classical music, this usually means music written prior to the 15th century. As thirds came to be treated as consonances, so
meantone temperament, and particularly quarter-comma meantone, which tunes thirds to the relatively simple ratio of 5:4, became more popular. However, meantone still has a wolf interval, so is not suitable for all music.
From around the 18th century, as the need grew for instruments to change key, and therefore to avoid a
wolf interval, this led to the widespread use of well temperaments and eventually equal temperament.
Gothic Voices- "Music for the Lion-Hearted King" (Hyperion, CDA66336, 1989), directed by Christopher Page(Leech-Wilkinson)
Lou Harrisonperformed by John Schneiderand the Cal Arts Percussion Ensemble conducted by John Bergamo- "Guitar & Percussion" (Etceter Records, KTC1071, 1990): "Suite No. 1" for guitar and percussion and "Plaint & Variations" on "Song of Palestine"
Timaeus (dialogue), in which Plato discusses Pythagorean tuning
List of musical intervals
List of meantone intervals
Daniel Leech-Wilkinson(1997), "The good, the bad and the boring", "Companion to Medieval & Renaissance Music". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816540-4.
* [http://www.music.sc.edu/fs/bain/atmi02/pst/index.html "A Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale"] , with audio samples.
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