- Ahhotep I
Ahhotep I (alternatively spelled "Ahhotpe" or "Aahhotep", "meaning " Peace of the Moon"), was an
Ancient Egyptianqueen who lived circa 1560- 1530 BC, during the early New Kingdom. A member of the Seventeenth dynasty of ancient Egypt, she was the daughter of Queen Tetisheri(known as Teti the Small) and Tao I, and was likely the sister, as well as, the wife of pharaoh SeqenenreTao II.
She is considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of
Ancient Egypt, perhaps the founder of the eighteenth dynasty. Ahhotep I had a long and influential life. She is thought to have ruled as regentafter the death of Tao II and enabled two of her sons who became pharaohs, Kamoseand Ahmose I, to unite Egypt following the Hyksosoccupation. What is more, her matrilineal succession would extend through the 18th Dynasty, ending with Nefertiti's daughter Ankhesenpaaten.
She is considered by some historians to be the
founderof the eighteenth dynasty, although this is debated by some others. Her husband, pharaoh Tao II, had been the pharaoh of only Upper Egypt. At that time the invaders of the Intermediate Period, the Hyksos, controlled Lower Egypt. It is thought that after his death in battle against the Hyksos, Ahhotep played a crucial role in government, warfare, and guidance of Upper Egypt.
Ahhotep and her sons, Kamose and Ahmose, managed to unite Upper and Lower Egypt by expelling the Hyksos. They assumed full power over the country, and when
Kamose, as his father had, died before they were able to defeat the Hyksos, Ahmose assumed the throne. However, evidence suggests that this occurred when Ahmose Iwas too young to rule, and hence, Ahhotep became regent.
Ahhotep lived until she was approximately ninety years old and was buried beside Kamose at Thebes. Evidence suggests that she played an important role during the unsettled
second intermediate periodand was influential in driving the Hyksosinvaders out of Egyptfollowing the death of her husband.
warriorqueen, she was buried with, among other things, three "flies of honor" medals(awarded in ancient Egypt for exceptional militaryservice) and ceremonial daggers. She also was presented with the "Order of Valour". She was honored with a stela, commissioned by Ahmose I, in the temple of Amun-Rethat praises her militaryaccomplishments.
Records indicate that Ahhotep led troops into battle against the Hyksos. Evidence such as the weaponry and jewelry found in her tomb, along with the following sentence on a stela devoted to her, indicates that she was a warrior queen who rallied troops:
"She is the one who has accomplished the rites and taken care of Egypt... She has looked after her soldiers, she has guarded her, she has brought back her fugitives and collected together her deserters, she has pacified Upper Egypt and expelled her rebels."
Ahhotep I was the daughter of queen
Tetisheriand Tao I. She was the wife of the seventeenth dynasty king Tao II; he is believed to have been her brother, following the ancient Egyptian tradition of marrying a royal princess to become king and to keep royal blood within the family. The royal line is traced through the women of Ancient Egypt.
One theory is that Ahhotep was the mother of two pharaohs,
Kamoseand Ahmose I, who succeeded Tao II after he was killed in a battle against the Hyksos. Although it now looks far more likely that Kamosewas a brother of Tao II and only succeeded the latter due to the combination of the strife Upper Egypt was facing and the young age of Ahmose I, who was without question the offspring of Ahotep and Tao II. Ahotep I served as regent between the reign of the two. Other children of Ahhotep I include the queen Ahmose-Nefertari, who was married to her brother Ahmose I (the second son of Ahhotep who became pharaoh), the princes Ahmose Sipairand Binpu, and the princesses Ahmose-Henutemipet, Ahmose-Meritamon, Ahmose-Nebetta, and Ahmose-Tumerisy.
Ahhotep's tomb was discovered nearly intact in AD 1859 in
Dra Abu el-Nagaat Thebes.
Ahhotep's mummy was found badly decayed in a gilded coffin, containing many weapons and pieces of jewelry. These burial artifacts consisted of bracelets, collars, pendants, a necklace, a ceremonial axes, and daggers, as well as two model ships of silver and gold.
*Lawless, Jennifer "Studies in Ancient Egypt"
*Callender (1995) "The eye of Horus"
*Grimal, Nicholas (1994) "A history of Ancient Egypt", Oxford
* [http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet Eternal Egypt]
* Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, pp.126-127
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