- Java Platform, Micro Edition
Java editions Java Card Micro Edition (ME) Standard Edition (SE) Enterprise Edition (EE) JavaFX PersonalJava (discontinued)
Java Platform, Micro Edition, or Java ME, is a Java platform designed for embedded systems (mobile devices are one kind of such systems). Target devices range from industrial controls to mobile phones (especially feature phones) and set-top boxes. Java ME was formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME).
Java ME was designed by Sun Microsystems, now a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation; the platform replaced a similar technology, PersonalJava. Originally developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 68, the different flavors of Java ME have evolved in separate JSRs. Sun provides a reference implementation of the specification, but has tended not to provide free binary implementations of its Java ME runtime environment for mobile devices, rather relying on third parties to provide their own.
As of 2008, all Java ME platforms are currently restricted to JRE 1.3 features and use that version of the class file format (internally known as version 47.0). Should Oracle ever declare a new round of Java ME configuration versions that support the later class file formats and language features, such as those corresponding JRE 1.5 or 1.6 (notably, generics), it will entail extra work on the part of all platform vendors to update their JREs.
Java ME devices implement a profile. The most common of these are the Mobile Information Device Profile aimed at mobile devices, such as cell phones, and the Personal Profile aimed at consumer products and embedded devices like set-top boxes and PDAs. Profiles are subsets of configurations, of which there are currently two: the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) and the Connected Device Configuration (CDC).
There are more than 2.1 billion Java ME enabled mobile phones and PDAs. Although it not used on any of today's newest mobile platforms (e.g. iPhone, Windows Phone 7, BlackBerry's new QNX, Android), it continues to be very popular in sub $200 devices such as Nokia's Series 40.
- 1 Connected Limited Device Configuration
- 2 Connected Device Configuration
- 3 Implementations
- 4 JSRs
- 5 ESR
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
Connected Limited Device Configuration
The Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) contains a strict subset of the Java-class libraries, and is the minimum amount needed for a Java virtual machine to operate. CLDC is basically used for classifying myriad devices into a fixed configuration.
A configuration provides the most basic set of libraries and virtual-machine features that must be present in each implementation of a J2ME environment. When coupled with one or more profiles, the Connected Limited Device Configuration gives developers a solid Java platform for creating applications for consumer and embedded devices. The configuration is designed for devices with 160KB to 512KB total memory, which has a minimum of 160KB of ROM and 32KB of RAM available for the Java platform.
Mobile Information Device Profile
Designed for mobile phones, the Mobile Information Device Profile includes a GUI, and a data storage API, and MIDP 2.0 includes a basic 2D gaming API. Applications written for this profile are called MIDlets. Almost all new cell phones come with a MIDP implementation, and it is now the de facto standard for downloadable cell phone games. However, many cellphones can run only those MIDlets that have been approved by the carrier, especially in North America.
JSR 271: Mobile Information Device Profile 3 (Final release on 09 Dec, 2009) specified the 3rd generation Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP3), expanding upon the functionality in all areas as well as improving interoperability across devices. A key design goal of MIDP3 is backward compatibility with MIDP2 content.
Information Module Profile
The Information Module Profile (IMP) is a profile for embedded, "headless" devices such as vending machines, industrial embedded applications, security systems, and similar devices with either simple or no display and with some limited network connectivity.
Originally introduced by Siemens Mobile and Nokia as JSR-195, IMP 1.0 is a strict subset of MIDP 1.0 except that it doesn't include user interface APIs — in other words, it doesn't include support for the Java package
javax.microedition.lcdui. JSR-228, also known as IMP-NG, is IMP's next generation that is based on MIDP 2.0, leveraging MIDP 2.0's new security and networking types and APIs, and other APIs such as
platformRequest(), but again it doesn't include UI APIs, nor the game.
Connected Device Configuration
The Connected Device Configuration is a subset of Java SE, containing almost all the libraries that are not GUI related. It is richer than CLDC.
The Foundation Profile is a Java ME Connected Device Configuration (CDC) profile. This profile is intended to be used by devices requiring a complete implementation of the Java virtual machine up to and including the entire Java Platform, Standard Edition API. Typical implementations will use some subset of that API set depending on the additional profiles supported. This document describes the facilities that the Foundation Profile provides to the device and other profiles that use it. This specification was developed under the Java Community Process.
Personal Basis Profile
Sun provides a reference implementation of these configurations and profiles for MIDP and CDC. Starting with the JavaME 3.0 SDK, a Netbeans-based IDE will support them in a single IDE.
In contrast to the numerous binary implementations of the Java Platform built by Sun for servers and workstations, Sun does not provide any binaries for the platforms of Java ME targets with the exception of an MIDP 1.0 JRE (JVM) for Palm OS. Sun provides no J2ME JRE for the Microsoft Windows Mobile (Pocket PC) based devices, despite an open-letter campaign to Sun to release a rumored internal implementation of PersonalJava known by the code name "Captain America". Third party implementations like JBlend and JBed are widely used by Windows Mobile vendors like HTC and Samsung.
Operating systems targeting Java ME have been implemented by DoCoMo in the form of DoJa, and by SavaJe as SavaJe OS. The latter company was purchased by Sun in April 2007 and now forms the basis of Sun's JavaFX Mobile. The company IS2T provides Java ME virtual machine (MicroJvm), for any RTOS and even with no-RTOS then qualified as baremetal. When baremetal, the virtual machine is the OS/RTOS: the device boots in Java.
MicroEmulator provides an open source (LGPL) implementation of MIDP emulator. This is a Java Applet based emulator and can be embedded in web pages.
The open-source Mika VM aims to implement JavaME CDC/FP, but is not certified as such (certified implementations are required to charge royalties, which is impractical for an open-source project). Consequently devices which use this implementation are not allowed to claim JavaME CDC compatibility.
JSR # Name Description 68 J2ME Platform Specification 30 CLDC 1.x 37 MIDP 1.0 118 MIDP 2.x 139 CLDC 1.1 271 MIDP 3.0
JSR # Name Description 297 Mobile 3D Graphics API (M3G) 2.0
JSR # Name Description 75 File Connection and PIM File system, contacts, calendar, to-do 82 Bluetooth 120 Wireless Messaging API (WMA) 135 Mobile Media API (MMAPI) Audio, video, multimedia 172 Web Services 177 Security and Trust Services 179 Location API 180 SIP API 184 Mobile 3D Graphics High level 3D graphics 185 Java Technology for the Wireless Industry (JTWI) General 205 Wireless Messaging 2.0 (WMA) 211 Content Handler API 226 SVG 1.0 229 Payment API 234 Advanced Multimedia Supplements (AMMS) MMAPI extensions 238 Mobile Internationalization API 239 Java Bindings for the OpenGL ES API 248 Mobile Service Architecture General 256 Mobile Sensor API 287 SVG 2.0
The ESR consortium is devoted to Standards for embedded Java. Especially cost effective Standards. Typical applications domains are industrial control, machine-to-machine, medical, e-metering, home automation, consumer, human-to-machine-interface, ...
ESR # Name Description 001 B-ON (Beyond CLDC) B-ON serves as a very robust foundation for implementing embedded Java software. It specifies a reliable initialization phase of the Java device, and 3 kind of objects: immutable, immortal and regular (mortal) objects. 002 MicroUI MicroUI defines an enhanced architecture to enable an open, third-party, application development environment for embedded HMI devices. Such devices typically have some form of display, some input sensors and potentially some sound rendering capabilities. This specification spans a potentially wide set of devices. 011 MWT MWT defines three distinct roles: Widget Designers, Look and Feel Designers and Application Designers. MWT allows same binary HMI application to run the same on all devices that provide a compliant MWT framework (embedded devices, cellphones, setopbox-TV, PC, etc...) allowing for true ubiquity of applications across product lines (ME, SE, EE). 015 ECLASSPATH ECLASSPATH unifies CLCD, CDC, Foundation, SE, EE execution environments with a set of around 300 classes API. Compiling against CLDC1.1/ECLASSPATH makes binary code portable across all Java execution environments.
- JavaFX Mobile
- Mobile Delivery and Tracking System
- Mobile development
- Mobile games
- Mobile learning
- Embedded Java
- Android (operating system)
- Danger Hiptop
- JSR 232: Mobile Operational Management An advanced OSGi technology based platform for mobile computing
- JSR 291: Dynamic Component Support for Java SE - Symmetric programming model for Java SE to Java ME JSR 232
- Hayun, Roy Ben (March 30, 2009). Java ME on Symbian OS: Inside the Smartphone Model (1st ed.). Wiley. p. 482. ISBN 0470743182. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470743182.html.
- Knudsen, Jonathan (January 8, 2008). Kicking Butt with MIDP and MSA: Creating Great Mobile Applications (1st ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 432. ISBN 0321463420. http://www.informit.com/store/product.aspx?isbn=9780321463425.
- Li, Sing; Knudsen, Jonathan (April 25, 2005). Beginning J2ME: From Novice to Professional (3rd ed.). Apress. p. 480. ISBN 1590594797. http://www.apress.com/book/view/9781590594797.
- Sun Developer Network, Java ME
- J2ME Game Developer Network
- Nokia's Developer Hub Java pages
- Nokia S60 Java Runtime blogs
- Sony Ericsson Developer World
- Motorola Developer Network
- J2ME Authoring Tool LMA Users Network
- Samsung Mobile Developer's site
- Sprint Application Developer's Website
- Performance database of Java ME compatible devices
- IS2T J2ME platforms for embedded systems
- Book - Mobile Phone Programming using Java ME (J2ME)
Java Java platform Sun technologies Platform technologies Major third-party technologies History Major programming languages Java conferences Mobile operating systems Unix-likeLinux-basedOther
- BlackBerry Tablet OS
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