Illative case


Illative case

=Illative case in the Finno-Ugric languages=

Illative (from Latin "illatus" "brought in") is, in the Finnish language, Estonian language and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "into (the inside of)".

An example from Hungarian would be "a házba" (into the house).

An example from Estonian would be "majasse" and "majja" (into the house), formed from "maja" (a house).

An example from Finnish would be "taloon" (into the house), formed from "talo" (a house). In Finnish, the case is formed by adding "-h@n", where '@' represents the last vowel, and then removing the 'h' if a simple long vowel would result. For example, "talo + h@n" becomes "talohon", where the 'h' elides and produces "taloon" with a simple long 'oo'; cf. "maa + h@n" becomes "maahan", without the elision of 'h'. This unusually complex way of adding a suffix can be explained by its reconstructed origin: a voiced palatal fricative. (Modern Finnish has lost palatalization and other fricatives than 'h' or 's'.) In the dialect of Pohjanmaa, the 'h' is not removed; one does say "talohon".

The other locative cases in Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian are:
*Inessive case ("in")
*Elative case ("out of")
*Adessive case ("on")
*Allative case ("onto")
*Ablative case ("from off")

Illative case in the Lithuanian language

The illative case, denoting direction of movement, is rare in modern standard Lithuanian, although it's used in the common spoken language, especially in certain dialects. Its singular form is more popular than the plural and can be found in books, newspapers, etc. Most Lithuanian nouns can take the illative ending, indicating that from the descriptive point of view the illative still can be treated as a case in Lithuanian, although since the beginning of the 20th century it isn't included in the lists of standard Lithuanian cases in most grammars and textbooks and the prepositional construction į+accusative is more frequently used today to denote direction. The illative case was used extensively in older Lithuanian; the first Lithuanian grammar book by Daniel Klein, that mentions both illative and į+accusative, calls the usage of the illative "more elegant". In later times, it often appeared in written texts of the authors who grew in Dzukija or Eastern Aukštaitija, such as Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius.

The illative case in Lithuanian has its own endings, that are different for each declension paradigm, although quite regular, compared with some other Lithuanian cases. An ending of the illative always ends with "n" in the singular, and "sna" is the final part of an ending of the illative in the plural.

Certain fixed phrases in the standard language are illatives, such as "patraukti atsakomybėn" ("to arraign"), "dešinėn!" ("turn right").

Examples:
*Masculine gender words (singular, singular illative, plural, plural illative, English translation)
**kar"as", kar"an", kar"ai", kar"uosna", war(s)
**lok"ys", lok"in", lok"iai", lok"iuosna", bear(s)
**akmuo, akmen"in", akmen"ys", akmen"ysna", stone(s)

*Feminine gender words (the same cases as above):
**up"ė", up"ėn", up"ės", up"ėsna", river(s)
**jūr"a", jūr"on", jūr"os", jūr"osna", sea(s)
**obel"is", obel"in", obel"ys", obel"ysna", appletree(s)

External links

* [http://www.hungarianreference.com/Nouns/ba-be-illative.aspx Hungarian illatve case] from www.HungarianReference.com


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • illative case — noun A case used to indicate movement into something; for example, into the house. Some languages that make use of the illative are Finnish, Hungarian, and Quechua …   Wiktionary

  • illative — illatively, adv. /il euh tiv, i lay tiv/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or expressing illation; inferential: an illative word such as therefore. 2. Gram. noting a case, as in Finnish, whose distinctive function is to indicate place into or toward… …   Universalium

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  • illative — 1. adjective a) of, or relating to an illation b) of, or relating to the grammatical case that in some languages indicates motion towards or into something 2. noun a) a …   Wiktionary

  • illative — [ɪ leɪtɪv] adjective 1》 of the nature of or stating an inference.     ↘proceeding by inference. 2》 Grammar relating to or denoting a case of nouns in some languages used to express motion into something. Derivatives illatively adverb Origin C16:… …   English new terms dictionary

  • illative — adj. 1 a (of a word) stating or introducing an inference. b inferential. 2 Gram. (of a case) denoting motion into. Derivatives: illatively adv. Etymology: L illativus (as ILLATION) …   Useful english dictionary

  • Inessive case — (from Latin inesse to be in or at ) is a locative grammatical case. This case carries the basic meaning of in : for example, in the house is talo·ssa in Finnish, maja·s in Estonian, etxea·n in Basque, nam·e in Lithuanian and ház·ban in… …   Wikipedia

  • Adessive case — In Finno Ugric languages, such as Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian, the adessive case (from Latin adesse to be present ) is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of on . For example, Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table) …   Wikipedia

  • Allative case — (abbreviated ALL, from Latin allāt , afferre to bring to ) is a type of the locative cases used in several languages. The term allative is generally used for the lative case in the majority of languages which do not make finer… …   Wikipedia

  • Elative case — See Elative for disambiguation. Elative (from Latin efferre to bring or carry out ) is a locative case with the basic meaning out of .In Finnish elative is typically formed by adding sta/stä , in Estonian by adding st to the genitive stem. In… …   Wikipedia


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