- Treaty of Kiel
name = Treaty of Kiel
January 14, 1814
January 14, 1814
Kiel, Holstein, Germany
date_effective = Immediately
date_expiration = N/A
Swedenon behalf the Sixth Coalition, Denmark-Norway
The Treaty of Kiel was a settlement between
Swedenand Denmark-Norwayon January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norwayto the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. However, the treaty signed in Kielwould never come into force. Sovereignty over Pomerania passed to Prussia, and Norway declared its independence, adopted a constitution and elected prince Christian Frederikas king. After a short war with Sweden, Norway accepted entering into a personal unionwith Sweden at the Convention of Moss. The Treaty of Kiel however specifically excluded the Norwegian dependencies of Greenland, Icelandand the Faroe Islands, which remained in the union with Denmark.
The personal union of Sweden and Norway
Union between Sweden and Norway"
On hearing news of the treaty, the Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway,
Christian Frederik, the resident vice-roy in Norway, founded a Norwegian independence movement, most likely with the surreptitious goal of re-unification with Denmark. His initiative was successful, partly due to clandestine support from the Danish Crown, but also because it was supported by prominent and influential Norwegians. They convinced the Prince that it would be unwise to claim the throne as his inheritance. Instead they advised him to assume the regency and call an election of representatives to a contituent assembly. On April 10, the national assembly met at Eidsvollto decide on a constitution. Norway eventually declared independence on May 17, 1814, electing Christian Frederik as King. A short war with Sweden later that year led to the abdication of Christian Frederik in October. After having made the necessary amendments to the constitution, the Norwegian Stortingon November 4elected Karl XIII of Sweden as King of Norway, creating the union between Sweden and Norway.
History of Norway
Norway in 1814
* [http://hem.passagen.se/klas.hasselstig/w_tryck/fred1814.html Treaty of Kiel (in Swedish and French)]
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