Treaty of Kiel


Treaty of Kiel

Infobox_Treaty
name = Treaty of Kiel
type = Peace treaty
date_draft = January 14, 1814
date_signed = January 14, 1814
location_signed = Kiel, Holstein, Germany
date_effective = Immediately
date_expiration = N/A
signatories = Sweden on behalf the Sixth Coalition, Denmark-Norway
depositor= N/A
language= French

The Treaty of Kiel was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. However, the treaty signed in Kiel would never come into force. Sovereignty over Pomerania passed to Prussia, and Norway declared its independence, adopted a constitution and elected prince Christian Frederik as king. After a short war with Sweden, Norway accepted entering into a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss. The Treaty of Kiel however specifically excluded the Norwegian dependencies of Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, which remained in the union with Denmark.

The personal union of Sweden and Norway

"Main article: Union between Sweden and Norway"

On hearing news of the treaty, the Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway, Christian Frederik, the resident vice-roy in Norway, founded a Norwegian independence movement, most likely with the surreptitious goal of re-unification with Denmark. His initiative was successful, partly due to clandestine support from the Danish Crown, but also because it was supported by prominent and influential Norwegians. They convinced the Prince that it would be unwise to claim the throne as his inheritance. Instead they advised him to assume the regency and call an election of representatives to a contituent assembly. On April 10, the national assembly met at Eidsvoll to decide on a constitution. Norway eventually declared independence on May 17, 1814, electing Christian Frederik as King. A short war with Sweden later that year led to the abdication of Christian Frederik in October. After having made the necessary amendments to the constitution, the Norwegian Storting on November 4 elected Karl XIII of Sweden as King of Norway, creating the union between Sweden and Norway.

ee also

*History of Norway
*Scandinavia
*Norway in 1814

External links

* [http://hem.passagen.se/klas.hasselstig/w_tryck/fred1814.html Treaty of Kiel (in Swedish and French)]


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