Adenoma


Adenoma
Adenoma
Classification and external resources

Micrograph of a tubular adenoma (left of image), a type of colonic polyp and a precursor of colorectal cancer. Normal colorectal mucosa is seen on the right of the image. H&E stain.
ICD-10 D12, D35.0, D34, D35.2, and others
ICD-9 211.3, 211.5,223.0, 226, 227.0,
ICD-O: M8140/0
MeSH D000236

An adenoma is a benign tumor (-oma) of glandular origin. Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid, prostate, etc. Although these growths are benign, over time they may progress to become malignant, at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Even while benign, they have the potential to cause serious health complications by compressing other structures (mass effect) and by producing large amounts of hormones in an unregulated, non-feedback-dependent manner (paraneoplastic syndrome).

Contents

Histopathology

Adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue, such as the mucosa of stomach, small intestine, and colon, in which tumor cells form glands or glandlike structures. In hollow organs (digestive tract), the adenoma grows into the lumen - adenomatous polyp or polypoid adenoma. Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated (lobular head with a long slender stalk) or sessile (broad base).

The adenomatous proliferation is characterized by different degrees of cell dysplasia (atypia or loss of normal differentiation of epithelium) irregular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, (pseudo)stratified nuclei, nucleolus, decreased mucosecretion, and mitosis. The architecture may be tubular, villous, or tubulo-villous. Basement membrane and muscularis mucosae are intact.

Locations

Colon

Adenomas of the colon are quite prevalent. They are found commonly at colonoscopy. They are removed because of their tendency to become malignant and to lead to colon cancer.

Renal

This is a tumor that is most often small and asymptomatic, and is derived from renal tubules. It may be a precursor lesion to renal carcinoma.

Adrenal

MRI scan T1 with fat saturation - adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are common, and are often found on the abdomen, usually not as the focus of investigation; they are usually incidental findings. About one in 10,000 is malignant. Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogeneous and smaller than 3 centimeters. Follow-up images in three to six months can confirm the stability of the growth.

While some adrenal adenomas do not secrete hormones at all, often some secrete cortisol, causing Cushing's syndrome, aldosterone causing Conn's syndrome, or androgens causing hyperandrogenism.

Thyroid

About one in 10 people are found to have solitary thyroid nodules. Investigation is required because a small percentage of these are malignant. Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type.

Pituitary

Pituitary adenomas are seen in 10% of neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, to which patients generally respond well. The most common subtype, prolactinoma, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone progesterone increases its growth. Medical therapy with cabergoline or bromocriptine generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not proven to be successful.

Parathyroid

An adenoma of a parathyroid gland may secrete inappropriately high amounts of parathyroid hormone and thereby cause primary hyperparathyroidism.

Liver

See Hepatocellular adenoma. Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms.

Breast

Breast adenomas are called fibroadenomas. They are often very small and difficult to detect. Often there are no symptoms. Treatments can include a needle biopsy, and/or removal.

Appendix

Adenomas can also appear in the appendix. The condition is extremely rare, and most physicians will never encounter an actual case, but they do happen. The most common version is called cystadenoma. They are usually discovered in the course of examination of the tissue following an appendectomy. If the appendix has ruptured and a tumor is present, this presents challenges, especially if malignant cells have formed and thus spread to the abdomen.

Bronchial

Bronchial adenomas are adenomas in the bronchi. They may cause carcinoid syndrome, a type of paraneoplastic syndrome.[1]

Sebaceous

A sebaceous adenoma is a cutaneous condition characterized by a slow-growing tumour usually presenting as a pink, flesh-coloured, or yellow papule or nodule.

See also

References

  1. ^ Table 6-5 in: Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7.  8th edition.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Adenoma — de colon Clasificación y recursos externos CIE 10 D12 d10, D35.0, d10; D34, d10; D35.2 …   Wikipedia Español

  • adenoma — m. oncol. Tumor benigno que se desarrolla en elementos epiteliales normales de una glándula y cuya principal característica es que posee espacios tapizados de epitelio. También se denomina enfermedad de Pringle Bourneville. Medical Dictionary.… …   Diccionario médico

  • Adenoma — Ad e*no ma, n.; L. pl. { mata}. [NL.; adeno + oma.] (Med.) A benign tumor of a glandlike structure; morbid enlargement of a gland. {Ad e*nom a*tous}, a. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Adenōma — (Adenoid, griech., Drüsengeschwulst), eine Geschwulst, die aus übermäßigem Wachstum von Drüsen hervorgeht, kommt in den verschiedensten Drüsen und auf Schleimhäuten (z. B. als Nasen , Mauen , Mastdarmpolyp) vor und ist meist gutartig. Aus dem A.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • adenoma — |ô| s. m. Tumor glandular.   ‣ Etimologia: grego adén, énos, glândula + oma …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • adenoma — (De aden y oma). m. Med. Tumor de estructura semejante a la de las glándulas …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • adenoma — [ad΄ n ō′mə] n. [ ADEN(O) + OMA] a benign tumor of glandular origin or with a glandlike cell arrangement adenomatous [ad΄ n äm′ə təs] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Adenoma — ► sustantivo masculino MEDICINA Tumor benigno de estructura semejante a las glándulas. * * * adenoma (de «aden » y « oma») m. Med. Tumor de estructura semejante a la de las glándulas. * * * adenoma. (De …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • adenoma — {{#}}{{LM A00732}}{{〓}} {{[}}adenoma{{]}} ‹a·de·no·ma› {{《}}▍ s.m.{{》}} Tumor del tejido glandular y generalmente benigno: • A mi amiga le han detectado un adenoma en la glándula tiroides.{{○}} {{★}}{{\}}ETIMOLOGÍA:{{/}} Del griego adén… …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • adenoma — noun (plural mas; also adenomata) Etymology: New Latin adenomat , adenoma Date: 1870 a benign tumor of a glandular structure or of glandular origin • adenomatous adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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