- Canvey Island
infobox UK place
country = England
official_name= Canvey Island
static_image_caption= Canvey Island's seawall and the adjacent environments at Leigh Beck.
population = 37,479
region= East of England
constituency_westminster= Castle Point
post_town= CANVEY ISLAND
Canvey Island (area 18.45 km²; pop. 37,479Office for National Statistics. (2008). [http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/Neighbourhood Statistics: Canvey Island] .] )is a reclaimed island in the
Thames estuaryseparated from the mainland of south Essexby a network of creeks. Lying below sea level it is prone to flooding at exceptional tides, but has nevertheless been inhabited since the Roman invasion of Britain. The island was mainly agricultural land until the 20th century when it became the fastest growing seaside resort in Britain between 1911-1951. The North Sea flood of 1953devastated the island costing the lives of 58 islanders, and led to the temporary evacuation of the 13,000 residents. [ [http://archive.guardian.co.uk/Repository/ml.asp?Ref=R1VBLzE5NTMvMDIvMDIjQXIwMDEwNw=&Mode=Gif&Locale=english-skin-custom Canvey Island's 13,000 refugees] . (1953-02-02). The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved 2008-07-29.] Canvey is consequently protected by modern sea defences comprising convert|15|mi|km of concrete seawall."Canvey Island Drainage scheme 2006". Environment agency. (May Avenue Pumping Station information board).] Canvey is also notable for its relationship to the petrochemical industry. The island was the site of the first delivery in the world of liquiefied natural gas by container ship, and later became the subject of an influential assessment on the risks to a population living within the vicinity of petrochemical shipping and storage facilities. Notable residents of the island have included Roland and Francis Prout; 20th century pioneers of catamaran design, the pub rock band Dr. Feelgood, and the Olympic decathlete Dean Macey.
Located at coord|51|51|71|N|0|5|7|E|type:city_region:GB, Canvey Island lies off the south coast of Essex convert|30|mi|km east of
London, and convert|15|mi|km west of Southend-on-sea. The island is separated from the mainland to the north and west by Benfleet, East Haven and Vange creeks, and faces the Thames Estuaryto the east and south. Two bridges in the north west connect the island to the mainland of North Benfleetand South Benfleet, with Benfleet railway stationin North Benfleet providing access to the London to Southend ( C2C) line.
Along with neighbouring
Two Tree Island, Lower Horse, and "Upper Horse", Canvey is an alluvial island formed in the holoceneperiod from the silt in the River Thamesand material entering the estuary on the tides of the North Seafrom the coast of Norfolk. [http://www.essexwt.org.uk/Geology/geology.htm The Geology of Essex] . (2001). Essex RIGS Group. Retrieved 2008-09-17.] Hallmann, Robert. (2006). Canvey Island, A History. Phillimore. ISBN 1860774369.] An unsuccessful search for coal beneath the island in 1953 revealed that the alluvium rests upon layers of London Clay, Lower London Tertiaries, Chalk, Lower Greensandand Gault Clay, with the basement rocks at a depth of 400m consisting of hard Old Red Sandstoneof Devonianage. [ [http://www.essexfieldclub.org.uk/portal/p/Geology+Site+Account/s/Canvey%20Island%20Borehole Geology Site Account: Castle Point District, CANVEY ISLAND, Canvey Island Borehole, TQ82158330] . (2008). The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 2008-09-17.]
The island is extremely flat, lies 3m below the mean high water level and subsequently has a propensity for flooding. Flood defenses have been constructed since the Middle Ages, and the first seawall to completely surround the land was built as part of the island's reclamation in 1622. The island suffered extensive flooding in 1731, 1736, 1791, 1881, 1897, and substantial loss of life in the
North Sea Flood of 1953. [Dowd, 2008. Meteorology.] As of 2008, the flood defences consist of a concrete seawall, flood sirens and an internal surface storm water drainage system. The seawall was completed in 1982 and is convert|15|mi|km long and surrounds 75% of the island's perimeter terminating with flood barriers spanning Benfleet Creek to the north and East Haven Creek in the west. The drainage system consists of sewers, culverts, natural and artificial dykes and lakes which feed seven pumping stations and gravity sluices that discharge the water into the Thames and creeks. Four of the discharge sites are "high flow" stations capable of discharging 600 litres of water per second at any tide level. The levels within the system are managed by a further five "Low flow" pumping stations. The Environment Agency's Thames Estuary 2100 flood defence plan includes Canvey Island as one site for alleviating the flood risks to London and the Thames estuary area. It is proposed that the western side of Canvey is developed as a site which is either temporarily flooded at times of risk, or is transformed into a permanent wetlands. [Steve Hackwell. (2008-09-15). Is it time to lose land to the sea?. Castle Point Echo. Newsquest.] [Steve Hackwell. (2008-09-19). [http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/3685674.You_just_can_t_use_Canvey_as_an_experiment_with_this_flood_scheme/ You just can't use Canvey as an experiment with this flood scheme] . Castle Point Echo. Newsquest. Retrieved 2008-09-19.]
Developments in the 20th century have produced a marked contrast between the environments in the east and west of the island. The eastern half of the island is allocated to residential areas, the main public amenities, and a small holiday camp and seafront, while the western half of the island is mainly farmland, marshes, and industrial areas. The marshes in the west include the 30 hectares known as "West Canvey marshes" acquired by the
RSPBin 2007, [The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (2007-12-13). [http://www.rspb.org.uk/reserves/guide/w/westcanveymarshes/index.asp West Canvey Marshes] . Retrieved 2008-08-28.] and the "Canvey Wick" nature reserve. "Canvey Wick" is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest(SSSI) at the site of the abandoned and incomplete oil refinery. Because the foundations of the 100-hectare site were prepared in the 1970s by laying thousands of tonnes of siltdredged from the Thames; the abandoned and undisturbed area has flourished as a haven for around 1,300 species of wildlife, many of which are endangered or were thought to be extinct; including the "shrill carder bee", the "emerald damsel fly" and the "weevil hunting wasp". It has been said that the site may exist with one of the highest levels of biodiversity in western Europe. [Castree, 2005. (p.2).] [ [http://www.english-nature.org.uk/special/sssi/images/uploaded_files/2000497.pdf Canvey Wick SSSI Designation by English Nature] ] Other areas of natural interest include the eight hectares of "Canvey Lake Local Nature Reserve" owned by Castle Point Borough Council. The lake existed as a means to facilitate the salt-making process during the Roman settlement of the island, and is also thought to have functioned as an oyster bed. [ [http://www.greengrid.co.uk/location.cfm?id=142 Canvey Lake] . (2008). Greengrid. The Thames Gateway South Essex Partnership. Retrieved 2008-08-28.] At the eastern point of the island is the 36-acre "Canvey Heights Country Park" which was reclaimed from the Newlands landfill site that operated there between 1954-89. The park is the highest land elevation on the island and subsequently provides wide views across the creeks, marshes and along the Thames. The environment supports an array of wildfowl such as skylarks, dark-bellied brent geese, and grey plover. ["From Rubbish Tip to Country Park; Thames Gateway." The Times (London, England) (November 15, 2005): 7. InfoTrac Full Text Newspaper Database. Gale. Essex Libraries. 28 August 2008]
Elizabethan antiquarian William Camdennoted in his topographical survey "Brittania" of the British isles in 1607 that Canvey Island (which he called Island Convennon) was documented in the 2nd century by the Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy. In his work Geographia Ptolemy mentions a headland in the mouth of the Thames to the east of the Trinovantesregion called "Counus Island". However, the difficulties faced in exacting the location of land areas in Ptolemy's ancient work has led modern researchers to question the correlation between Ptolemy's island and contemporary Canvey. It is argued that the "Counus Island" would have existed much further out to sea (or even likely to be the Isle of Sheppey[MacBean, & Johnson. (1773).] ), and that the similarity between the names is mere coincidence. Without any suitable island matching Ptolemy's "Counus Island", it is also thought that the documented island has been lost or reduced to an insignificant sandbank by subsidence and the constant effects of the sea since Ptolemy's time.Yearsley, Ian. (2000). Islands of Essex. Canvey Island. Ian Henry Publications. ISBN 0860255093.]
Mentioned on John Norden's 1594 insert above, is what is now the Eastern/Point mud flats of Canvey Island. Two Tree Island is in pretty much the same shape now as then.The third un-named Island could well be Counus or (Council Island).Certainly the Trinovantes, Cantiaci and the Catuvellauni would have counseled with the Iceni here, shortly before the rebellion against the Romans. Counus remains as the Canvey Point Sand Bank and Maplin Sands, and stretched the whole length of Southend Sea Front area. It is the main reason for Southend's Tidal flats being so shallow.Cana's People were descendant of both Cantiaci and the Catuvellauni. Counus would then be placed at the southern border of the Trinovantes on the Eastern Extent of The Tames (Thames). Fact|date=September 2008
Excavations on Canvey have unearthed a collection of early man-made objects comprising axes from the
Neolithicera,Yearsley. (2000).] a bracelet dating from the Bronze Age,Barsby. (1992).] and early Celtic gritted ware pottery. However, the remains of Roman structures and objects suggests the first settlement of Canvey occurred between 50–250 AD.White. (1994).] The remains point to a community existing with a farmstead, a garrison, a burial ground, and the operation of a large salt-making industry (revealed by the existence of several Red hills). [see: The excavation of a Red Hill on Canvey Island. (Rodwell, 1966).] The discovery of a Roman road found to terminate 100 metres across the creek in neighbouring Benfleet suggests a means may have existed to facilitate the salt's distribution to Chelmsfordand Colchester, and the recovery of rich items of pottery and glassware of a variety only matched elsewhere by excavations of port facilities suggests the Romans may also have exploited Canvey's location in the Thames for shipping. [Essex County Council Heritage Conservation. (2008). [http://www.finestprospect.org.uk/Roman/Roman.htm Romano-British Occupation of South Essex.] Retrieved: 2008-03-27.]
axon and Mediaeval
The settlement and agricultural development of Essex by the Saxons from the 5th century saw the introduction of sheep-farming which would dominate the island's industry until the 20th century. The
Norman conquestsaw the area of Canvey recorded in the domesday bookas a sheep farming pasture under the control of nine villages and parishes situated in a belt across south inland and coastal Essex. [Darby, (p. 157).] Apart from the meat and wool produced from the sheep, the milk from the ewes was used for cheese-making. The abundance in later centuries would see the cheeses become a commodity taken for sale at the London markets, and at one stage exported via Calaisto the continent. The existence of several place names on modern Canvey using the "wick" suffix (denoting the sheds in which the cheese was made) shows the influence of the early Saxon culture. The island itself has its name derived from the Anglo-Saxon "Caningaege"; meaning "The Island of Cana's People". The developments of the English language would lead to the more familiar name of "Caneveye" written in manorial records of 1254. [Castle Point Borough Council. (2006). [http://www.castlepoint.gov.uk/General.asp?id=SX9452-A77FC5D3 Local History: Canvey Island.] Retrieved: 2008-02-27.] The period of development often produced a confused use of letters [English Place-Name Society. (1926).] such that comparative spellings would also include Canefe, Kaneweye, Kaneveye, and Koneveye. By the 12th century, Essex and subsequently Canvey were in the possession of Henry de Essexwho inherited the land from his Grandfather - a man called Suene and a descendant of King Sweyn II of Denmark.Bills. (2004).] During the reign of Henry II (1154–1189) the land was confiscated from de Essex and redistributed among the King's favoured nobles.
14th century – 17th century
During Edward II's reign (1307-1327) the land was under the possession of John de Apeton and the first attempts were made at managing the effects of the sea with rudimentary defences, but periodical flooding continued to blight the small population of mostly shepherds and their fat-tailed variety of sheep for a further 300 years.
William Camdenwrote of the island in 1607 that it was so low that it was often quite flooded, except the hills, upon which the sheep have a place of safe refuge.Camden. (1586).] The uniform flatness of Canvey suggests that these hills are likely to be the red hills of the Roman salt making industry, or the early makeshift sea defences constructed by some of the landowners around their farms.In 1622, Sir Henry Appleton (a descendant of John de Apeton), and Canvey's other landowners [Canvey's other landowners were Abigail Baker, Thomas Binckes, the Blackmore family, and Juilius Sludder. (Barsby, 1992).] instigated a project to reclaim the land and wall the island from the Thames. The scheme was managed by an acquaintance of Appleton's - Joas Croppenburg, a Dutch Haberdasherof Cheapsidein London. An agreement was reached in 1623 which stipulated that in return for inning and recovering the island, the landowners would grant a third of the land as payment for the work. A relation of Croppenburg's; the Dutch engineer Cornelius Vermuydenpresent in England at the time of the project on a commission to drain the Fensand involved in repairing the seawall at Dagenhamhas led to speculation that Vermuyden oversaw the project, but proof appears to be vague, nevertheless the work was completed by around 300 Hollanders skilled in the construction of dykes and other sea defences. The engineers successfully reclaimed convert|3600|acre|km2 by walling the island with local chalk, limestoneand the heavy clayof the marshes, with the main length along the Thames faced with kentish ragstone. A broad drainage ditch was dug inland off the area facing the river while smaller inlets were filled in. Excess water would have collected in the broad ditch and then been discharged into the river by the means of seven sluices (later known as Commissioners Dykes). The completion of the work saw a considerable number of the Dutch engineers take land as payment for their work, and consequently settle on the island.
The Chapman Lighthouse
The coast of Canvey Island was host to the Chapman Lighthouse as briefly described in
Joseph Conrad's novel ' Heart of Darkness'. [Joseph Conrad. (1899). The Heart of Darkness. (p. 5). Everyman. ISBN 0460872923.] It is believed that the peril of the mudflatsbelow such shallow waters off the Canvey Island coast prompted the Romans to devise some form of beacon as a warning in the area. In 1851 a hexagonal lighthouse was constructed by the engineer James Walker, a consultant lighthouse engineer at Trinity Houseat the time. This all-iron lighthouse replaced a lightshipwhich had been moored in the area for the preceding four years. The lighthouse was demolished in 1957 due to its poor condition.
During the Victorian era Canvey was a very fashionable place to visit and many thought its air to have healing properties. Canvey Island benefited from this and thousands of people flocked to it especially from places like London. This was the case until the late 1970s when tourism to the Island declined.
econd World War
Second World Warthe island was a part of the GHQ Line, a line of concrete pillboxes constructed as a part of the defence against the expected German invasion. Some of the old pillboxes are still in place today. Also, concrete barges were used extensively just off the south coast of the island, partly to act as a sea-barrier and also as a mounting point for anti-aircraft guns; one of which was beached on the east end of the island and remained for many years as a point of interest for visitors and a play area for many separate generations of the island's children. It has since been demolished by the Island yacht club as it was considered 'a risk to health and safety'.
Along with the
Coalhouse Fortat nearby East Tilbury, Thorney bay on the southern coast of the island was the site of a degaussing station built to monitor the effectiveness of the degaussing equipment functioning on board the allied ships passing along the Thames. The structure is the last intact degaussing station on the north side of the river, and was still operating in 1974. Known as the "Canvey loop", the building was occupied by the Women's Royal Naval Serviceand used for monitoring merchant ships. [Matthew Stanton. (2008-05-05). Wartime museum. Castlepoint Yellow Advertiser. (p. 21).] [ [http://www.canveyisland.org/page_id__107_path__0p26p.aspx Canvey's WW2 Degaussing Station] . Canvey Island Community archive. Retrieved 2008-07-25.]
The Flood of 1953
On 31 January 1953, the North Sea Flood hit the island during the night and caused the deaths of 58 people. Many of the victims were in the holiday bungalows of the eastern Newlands estate and perished as the water reached ceiling level. The small village area of the island is approximately two feet above sea level and consequently escaped the effects of the flood. This included the local "Red Cow" pub which was later renamed the
King Canutein reference to the legend of the 11th century Danish king of England commanding the tide to halt with the sea lapping at his feet.
After the flood of 1953, a new seawall was built, which was then replaced with a significantly larger construction in the 1980s.
The southern area of the Canvey Island West ward has predominantly existed as
petrochemicalsite since the first construction of an oil terminalthere in 1936. [Stratton, 2000. (p. 192).] In 1959, as part of a pioneering Anglo-American project designed to asses the viability of transporting liquefied natural gasoverseas, a gas terminal with two one thousand tonne capacity storage tanks was constructed at the site alongside the oil terminal. The gas terminal built by the British Gas Council was designed to store and distribute imported gas to the whole of Britain via the facilities at Thames Haven and the local refinery at Shellhavenin Coryton. The first delivery of 2020 tonnes arrived on 20 February 1959 from Lake Charles, Louisianaby a specially modified liberty ship"Normarti" renamed "The Methane Pioneer". The success of seven further deliveries over the following 14 months [Center for Energy Economics. (2008). [http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/LNG_introduction_06.php Introduction to LNG: Brief History of LNG] . Retrieved 2008-06-18.] established the international industry for transporting liquefied natural gas by sea, [Long and Gardner, 2004. (p. 293).] but the discovery of oil and gas in North sea ended the development in Britain. Planning permission was granted in the following years for Occidental Petroleumand the Italian oil company, United Refineries Ltd to develop the site and construct an oil refinery, but a report in 1975 by the Health and safety executive concluded that the residents of the island faced an unacceptable risk, which led to the permission being revoked. The issue of risk was again highlighted in an attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Armyin January 1979 on a storage tank at the island's Texacooil terminal. A bomb was detonated at a tank containing aviation fuel, but failed to ignite with the fuel escaping into a safety moat. [The Secretary of State for the Home Department (Mr. Merlyn Rees) (18 January 1979). [http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1979/jan/18/bomb-incidents Commons Sitting - Bomb incidents] . Retrieved 2008-06-18.] [Sir Bernard Braine. (27 March 1979). [http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1979/mar/27/liquefied-gas-storage-canvey-island Commons Sitting - Liquified gas storage (Canvey Island)] . Retrieved 2008-06-18.] The Occidental site was abandoned in 1975 leaving a half-built oil refinery, storage tanks, and an unused mile long jetty which cost around £10 million of the approximate total of £60 million spent on the project. [ [http://archive.gazette-news.co.uk/1999/9/24/214364.html Canvey: Jetty scheme to prompt island jobs boom?] . (1999-09-24). Gazette. Newsquest Media Group. Retrieved 2008-06-18.] However, in the following years the disused and undisturbed site flourished as a haven for wildlife, and in 2003, the final storage tanks were removed in a clean-up operation, and the site was renamed as "Canvey Wick" and opened as a nature reserve.
Canvey Island was an influential destination in the 1970s for artists of the Pub rock genre of music [Birch. (2000).] such as
Elvis Costello, [The Elvis Costello Home Page. (2008). [http://www.elviscostello.info/wiki/index.php/Don%27t_Look_Back Don't Look Back: Credits] . Retrieved: 2008-02-19.] Eddie & The Hot Rods, Nick Lowe, [Andrew Shields and Peter Watts. (2007-08-07). The best of Essex: Culture: [http://www.timeout.com/london/features/3304/2.html Canvey Island pub rock] . Timeout. Retrieved 2008-07-10.] and The Kursaal Flyers, while also being home to "Canvey Island’s finest" band Dr. Feelgood. [The Elvis Costello Home Page. (2008). Liner Notes: Trust. [http://www.elviscostello.info/wiki/index.php/Liner_Notes:_Trust Rhino liner notes] . Retrieved: 2008-02-19.] Although Canvey Island may now be considered as the worst place in the world by its younger generation of musicians such as Joshua Third(guitarist of the Horrors), [James Medd. (February 18, 2007). [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20070218/ai_n18623827# The Horrors! The Horrors!] Independent on Sunday. Retrieved: 2008-02-19.] the island continues to be a source of inspiration for artists such as British Sea Powerwho included a song entitled "Canvey Island" on their 2008 album " Do You Like Rock Music?"
Canvey Island was established as a separate civil and ecclesiastical parish in 1881. The formation replaced the 17 divisions of the land held since the Norman era by the neighbouring parishes of
North Benfleet, South Benfleet, Bowers Gifford, Prittlewell, Southchurch, Hadleigh, Laindon, Pitsea, and Vange. In 1926, the parish was converted to the Canvey Island Urban District, then dissolved along with the Benfleet Urban Districtin the Local Government Act 1972to form the parliamentary constituencyand local government districtand borough of Castle Point. As of 2008, the Member of Parliamentrepresenting Castle Point is Bob Spinkof the United Kingdom Independence Party.
As of the
2001 UK census, the population of Canvey was 37,479 of which 87.9% of people were living within the five wards of the eastern area of the island at a population density of 38 persons per hectare, while the population density within the west ward - covering a larger area of the island - was 4.6 persons per hectare.
There were 15,312 dwellings on Canvey of which 98.7% were households. 42.4% were occupied by married couples, 13.9% of households contained three or more adults and no children, 26% were one person households, and 8.1% were occupied by co-habiting couples. Canvey had a higher proportion at 35.2% of households owning their properties outright compared with the average of 29.2% for England, but had a lower proportion when compared to the average for Castle Point at 39.9%.
There was a higher proportion of female residents than male by 0.03%. The median age of the population was 40 years, and 23% were under 18, while 15% of residents were over 65.
The island has a high proportion of white people compared to national figures; the ethnicity recorded was 98.2% white compared with 91% for England. 0.6% of the population of Canvey were of a mixed ethnic group, while 0.6% were Asian, 0.2% Black, and 0.2% Chinese.
4.2% of the population were foreign born, with 1.7% of residents born in another constituent country of the UK. 2.5% of the population were born outside the UK; and 1.2% of residents born outside Europe.
Religion was recorded as 74% Christian, 0.2% Muslim, 0.1% Jewish, 0.1% Hindu, while 16% of islanders had no religion.
The proportion of unemployed persons on Canvey was lower at 2.2% than for Castle Point at 2.4%, and England at 3.3%.
The "Lobster Smack Public House" at the south west corner of the island is a grade II listed building dated to the 17th century. The pub was known to
Charles Dickenswho mentioned it in Great Expectations. [Christopher Somerville. (2001-02-05). [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/uk/easternengland/article722493.ece Essex: Walking on Canvey Island.] The Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-08-28.] Alongside the pub is a row of wooden Coast guard cottages that date from the late 19th century which are also of grade II listed status. [ [http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=116821&resourceID=5 The Lobster Smack Public House] . (2006). Listed Buildings Online. Heritage Gateway. Retrieved 2008-08-28.] [ [http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=116822&resourceID=5 2-8 Haven Road] . (2006). Listed Buildings Online. Heritage Gateway. Retrieved 2008-08-28.]
Landmarks from the era of Canvey's development as a seaside resort in the 20th century include the
International style Labworth Cafébuilt 1932-33 and designed by Ove Arup. The building fell into a state of disrepair in the 1970s and 80s but was renovated in 1996 and now functions as both a beach bistro and restaurant. The local bus depot within the island's Leigh Beck area was reopened as the "Castle point transport museum" in 1979. The depot had served the island between 1934-1978 and now houses a collection of buses, commercial, military and emergency vehicles, and general items related to public road transport. [Moss, P. (2008). Castle point transport museum. [http://www.castlepointtransportmuseum.co.uk/museumhistory.htm Museum History] . Retrieved 2008-08-28.]
Opened in 1979, the Heritage Centre along Canvey Road is housed in the former St. Katherine’s Church, which was built in 1874. Originally timber-framed, the church was rendered over in the
1930’sto give it its present appearance; it closed as a place of worship in 1962. It now contains an art and craft centre with a small folk museum.
The island is connected to the mainland by two roads with bridges, the A130 and the B1014.
The nearest railway station is
Benfleet railway stationon the c2cline between London (Fenchurch Street) and Shoeburyness.
There are two bus companies that operate services onto Canvey Island. These two companies are
First Essexand Regal Busways. First Essex is the main bus operator and operates eight services onto Canvey, these services are: 3, 16, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 822. These all run through the town centre and connect all of the different parts of the island to the town centre. From Canvey, passengers can travel to places such as Southend, Basildon, Bournes Green and Benfleet. Regal Busways is a new operator on the island and started services in May 2006 and operate the No.1 service to Chelmsford. The service operates via Benfleet, South Benfleet, Battlesbridge, Howe Greenand Sandonand occasionally beyond Chelmsfordto Writtle. Regal Buswaysuse Optare Tempovehicles that have luxury leather seats and state-of-the-art public information systems.
Castle View Schoolis a comprehensive schoolfor ages 11-16 located in the north of Canvey Island overlooked by Hadleigh Castle. As of 2006 it has some 900 pupils, and 200 staff. It is a specialist science college. Another school is Furtherwick Park Schooland is for 11-16 year olds and is in the town centre and is a specialist media arts school. The third school is a specialist arts school named after Cornelius Vermuydenwhich is located near Waterside Farm.
Ebenezer Joseph Mather, the founder of Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen spent his retirement on the island. He died 23 December 1927 and was buried in the grounds of the local St Nicholas church. [Stephen Friend, ‘Mather, Ebenezer Joseph (1849–1927)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/58423, accessed 28 August 2008] ] Clara James one of the founding members in 1889 of The Women's Trade Union Association (WTUA) established a holiday home on the island and served from 1925 as a parish councillor. She died on Canvey in 1956. [Gerry Holloway, ‘James, Clara Grace (1866–1954)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, October 2007 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/60161, accessed 28 August 2008] ] The pioneers of the modern
catamaranRoland and Francis Prout were born and lived on the island, and developed and operated the Prout Catamaran business from the boat yards at Leigh Beck. The brothers also represented Britain at the flatwater canoeing event at the 1952 Olympics. [Ron Norman. (2008) [http://www.catamaran.co.uk/shearwater/history.htm G. Prout & Sons... and the Catamaran] . Shearwater Association. Retrieved: 2008-02-22.]
The Olympic decathlete
Dean Maceywas born and raised on the island, as was Robert Denmarkthe Olympic and Commonwealth (Gold) 5,000 metres athlete. Peter Taylorthe temporary manager of the England football team in 2000 was born on CanveyFact|date=February 2008. Other footballers from the island include Frank Saul: FA Cup winner in 1967 with Tottenham Hotspur F.C.; Ty Gooden: who played between 1992-2005 for teams such as Arsenal and Swindon Town F.C.; and Dean Marney: an England U21 currently playing at Hull City.
The U18s England
Rugby Unionand Saracensplayer Reece Durrance was also born on the island.Fact|date=August 2008
Canvey Island has two senior football teams in
Canvey Island F.C.(the "Gulls") and Concord Rangers F.C.Founded in 1926, Canvey FC has achieved considerable success and disappointment in recent years from winning the FA Trophyin 2000-01 and the promotion to the Football Conferencein 2004-05, to resignation the following year, and subsequent re-entry into the Isthmian League First Division North.
Islands in the River Thames
List of places on land with elevations below sea level
Canvey Island Monster
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* Dowd, D. M. (2008). [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~canvey/Cyclopedia.htm Canvey Cyclopaedia.] (RootsWeb.com). Retrieved: 2008-02-24.
* English Place-Name Society. (1926). Survey of English Place-names. Cambridge University press.
* Holland, Julian. (2007). Exploring the Islands of England and Wales. Canvey Island. (p. 88). Frances Lincoln ltd. ISBN 0711227438.
* Kelly's Directory of Essex. (1933). [http://londonpublichouse.com/essexpubs/Directories/Canvey.shtml Canvey Island.] (londonpublichouse.com) Retrieved: 2008-03-27.
* Long, Bob and Gardner, Bob. (2004). Guide to Storage Tanks and Equipment. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 1860584314.
* MacBean, Alexander & Johnson, Samuel. (1773). A Dictionary of Ancient Geography. [http://books.google.com/books?id=EqwBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PT204&lpg=PT204&dq=%22Counus%22%2Bptolemy&source=web&ots=Qu__ZV5C9N&sig=oG4BeMhIhzat6nYMn0GjiN9Dr0M CR: Counos, Ptolemy.] Pub. G. Robinson [etc.] .
* Pigot's Essex 1832-3 Trade Directory. [http://londonpublichouse.com/essexpubs/Directories/Rayleigh.shtml Canvey Island.] (londonpublichouse.com) Retrieved: 2008-03-27.
* Post Office Directory of Essex. (1871). [http://londonpublichouse.com/essexpubs/Directories/Canvey.shtml Canvey Island.] (londonpublichouse.com) Retrieved: 2008-03-27.
* Rodwell, W. J. (1966). The excavation of a Red Hill on Canvey Island. Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society.
* Stratton, Michael. (2000). Twentieth Century Industrial Archaeology. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0419246800.
* Thayer, Bill. (2003). [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/2/2*.html#Counus Reproduction of a section of The Geography of Claudius Ptolemy published by Dover Publications, 1991.]
* Walton, John K. (2000). The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719051703.
* White, Susan. (1994). The History of Canvey Island Five Generations. The Bookshop Canvey Island (pub). ISBN 09520002021.
* Wilson, John Marius. (1866). The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales. [http://londonpublichouse.com/essexpubs/Directories/Canvey.shtml Canvey Island.] Pub. Edinburgh, A. Fullarton.
* [http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx Canvey Community Archive website]
* [http://www.finchleygallery.com/canvey-island.htm Watercolour paintings of Canvey Island by the late Paul Smyth]
* [http://www.buglife.org.uk/conservation/currentprojects/canveyislandrainforest.htm Buglife's Canvey Island project]
* [http://www.canveyviews.co.uk Canvey Views - News, Views & Directory for the Island]
* [http://www.canveyisland.org.uk History of Canvey]
* [http://www.concordrangers.co.uk/ Concord Rangers F.C.]
* [http://www.canveycricket.org.uk/ Canvey Island Cricket Club]
* [http://www.canveyislandfc.com/index1.shtml Canvey Island Football Club]
* [http://www.cs-sc.org.uk/ Chapman Sands Sailing Club]
* [http://www.cirufc.co.uk/ Canvey Island Rugby Union Football Club]
* [http://www.islandyachtclub.co.uk/ The Island Yacht Club]
* [http://www.canvey-aircadets.org.uk/ Canvey Air Cadets]
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Lower Horse Island
Two Tree Island
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