- Promontory fort
A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus utilizing the topography to reduce the ramparts needed. Although their dating is problematic, most seem to date to the
Iron Age. They are mainly found in Ireland, the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Manand Cornwall.
Only a few Irish promontory forts have been excavated and most date to the
Iron Age, though some, like Dunbeg( County Kerry) might have originated in the Bronze Age. Others, like Dalkey Island( County Dublin) contain imported Eastern Mediterranean potteryand have been reoccupied and changed in the early medievalperiod. Dunbeg contains an early medieval corbelled stone hut ( clochan).
Isle of Man
On the Isle of Man promontory forts are found particularly on the rocky slate
headlandsof the south. Four out of more than 20 have been excavated and several, especially in Santon, can be visited using the Raad Ny Foillancoastal footpath. All have a rampart on their vulnerable landward side, and excavations at Cronk ny Merriuhave shown that access to the fort was via a strongly-built gate.
Scandinavianswho arrived in Mann in the eighth and ninth centuries ADsometimes re-used these Iron Age promontory forts, often obliterating the old domestic quarters with their characteristic rectangular houses; the fine example at Cronk ny Merriu has been used as the basis of the reconstruction in the House of Manannanmuseum in Peel.
Promontory forts can be found all along the coast of
Penwith. Maen Castle, near to Land's Endis one of the oldest, having been dated to around 500 BC. Another is to be found at Dodman Point.
A number of promontory forts exist in ruined form on the Orkney Mainland and some of the other islands of the Orkney group. On the Orkney Mainland,
Gurnessis a well preserved Iron Age brochpositioned on Eynhallow Sound. On Shapinsay, an island to the north of the Mainland, there is the Broch of Burroughston. '
Mogadoris an example of a promontory fort in Moroccoon the Atlantic Oceancoast. The fort was established by the Phoenicians in the first millennium BC. (Hogan, 2007)
* Nancy Edwards, "The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland" (London, Batsford 1990).
* C.Michael Hogan, "Mogador: promontory fort", The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, Nov. 2, 2007 [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=17926]
* [http://www.gov.im/mnh/heritage/story/promforts.xml Manx National Heritage - Promontory Forts ]
* [http://www.gov.im/mnh/heritage/monuments/cronknymerriu.xml Cronk ny Merriu MNH]
* [http://www.cornwall-calling.co.uk/castles/maen-castle.htm Maen Castle] Retrieved 14 May 2007.
* [http://www.pretanicworld.com/Monuments.html Pretanic World - Chart of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Celtic Stone Structures]
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