The title was used during the Provisional Government for regional heads of administration, but it is mostly associated with a number of Cheka and military functions in Bolshevik and Soviet government military forces during the Russian Civil War (the White Army widely used the collective term "bolsheviks and commissars" for their opponents) and with the later terms People's Commissar (or narkom) for government ministers and political commissar in the military.
It is based on similar titles in a variety of languages (such as commissaire in French, Kommissar in German) most often attached to a criminal investigator in the police; they are usually translated as "commissioner".
A People's Commissar (informally abbreviated narkom) was a government official serving in a Council of the People's Commissars. This title was first used by the Government of the Russian SFSR (out of dislike for the tsarist and "bourgeois" term minister) and then copied among the many Soviet and Bolshevik-controlled states in the Russian Civil War.
The government departments headed by a People's Commissar were called People's Commissariat (informally abbreviated narkomat).
People's Commissars and People's Commissariats were renamed Minister and Ministries in 1946 by a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
A political commissar was a high-ranking functionary at a military headquarters who held coequal rank and authority with the military commander of the unit. Political commissars were established to control the military forces by the Communist party. No military order might be issued which did not have the prior approval of both the commander and the commissar.
Although lower-level political officers never received the same military training as commanding officers, most commissars were high-ranking party bosses and never had any military training or talent.
Following the disasters of 1942, the political command was abolished. Political officers only survived at the regimental level, in the form of a Deputy for Political Matters, and at the front level, where they formed the Military Councils with respective military commanders.
The voenkom (Russian: военком), translated as war commissar, is the head of a military commissariat - a regional office that drafts men for military service, executes plans for military mobilization, and maintains records on military reserves.
Until late 1930s, the People's Militsiya and Internal Troops of the NKVD had no personal ranks, and used many various position-ranks instead. In 1935, Militsiya created a special system of personal ranks that was a blend of standard military ranks and position-ranks; this system was largely reused by the newly-created Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB) in their rank structure, although they had Commissar-style ranks for top officers in place of Militsiya-style inspector and director.
From 1943, the Militsiya switched to a new rank system and insignia introduced in the Soviet Army. Instead of General ranks, top officers used Commissar of Militsiya 3rd, 2nd, and 1st rank, even though they used army-standard Major General, Lieutenant General and Colonel General shoulder boards. These Commissar ranks were replaced by corresponding General ranks in 1975.
The GUGB also switched to military-style ranks and insignia in 1945, although they replaced Commissar-style ranks with General officer ranks right away.
A similar term in French describes the equivalent of the rank of Major both in the army of the ancien regime and the French revolution. Such officials were not military officers but reported back to the political authorities: the king and the National Assembly, respectively.
Various historical German states have used an equivalent title, Reichskommissar (a portmanteau of Reich and the German Kommissar), for several administrators who held responsibility over a territory or area of government.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Commissar — Commissär, Commissar, Commissär, Beauftragter, oder Beamter für ein besonderes Geschäft, z.B. Ablösungs , Unterpfandsbuch , Post C. etc. Commissariat, im Militärwesen ehemals der Ort, wo die Mundvorräthe für die Armee aufbewahrt wurden, Magazin;… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Commissär — (v. lat. Commissarius), 1) der einen Auftrag erhält, s. u. Commission 1); 2) Beamteter, wegen des von ihm zu besorgenden Geschäfts mit besonderen Beinamen, als Ablösungs , Grenz , Kammer , Marsch , Polizei , Post , Proviant , Kriegs C.; 3)… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
commissar — 1918, from Rus. komissar, from Ger. Kommissar commissioner, from French, ultimately from M.L. commissarius (see COMMISSARY (Cf. commissary)) … Etymology dictionary
commissar — ► NOUN ▪ a Communist official, especially in Soviet Russia or China, responsible for political education. ORIGIN Russian komissar, from Latin commissarius person in charge … English terms dictionary
commissar — [käm′ə sär΄] n. [Russ komissar < ML commissarius: see COMMISSARY] 1. the head of any of the former commissariats in the U.S.S.R.: in 1946, title changed to minister 2. a representative of the government or communist party in the U.S.S.R.,… … English World dictionary
commissar — n. a political commissar * * * a political commissar … Combinatory dictionary
commissar — noun Etymology: Russian komissar, from German Kommissar, from Medieval Latin commissarius Date: 1918 1. a. a Communist party official assigned to a military unit to teach party principles and policies and to ensure party loyalty b. one that… … New Collegiate Dictionary
commissar — /kom euh sahr , kom euh sahr /, n. 1. the head of any of the major governmental divisions of the U.S.S.R.: called minister since 1946. 2. an official in any communist government whose duties include political indoctrination, detection of… … Universalium
commissar — noun a) An official of the Communist Party, often attached to a military unit, who was responsible for political education. b) In the Soviet Union, the head of a commissariat … Wiktionary
commissar — Synonyms and related words: Simon Legree, absolute monarch, absolute ruler, alderman, all powerful ruler, archon, arrogator, autarch, autocrat, bailie, burghermaster, burgomaster, cabinet member, cabinet minister, caesar, chancellor, city… … Moby Thesaurus