Władysław III of Poland


Władysław III of Poland

Infobox Monarch
name=Vladislaus III(I) of Varna


caption=Symbollic sarcophagus of Władysław, Wawel Cathedral, Kraków [ [http://www.chris-wonders.com/photo_677182.html The Wawel Cathedral] .]
date of birth=birth date|1424|10|31|mf=y
place of birth=Kraków, Poland
date of death=death date and age|1444|11|10|1424|10|31|mf=y
place of death=Varna, Bulgaria
place of burial=
reign=1434-1444 (Poland) 1440-1444 (Hungary and Croatia)
coronation=July 25, 1434 in the Wawel Cathedral as King of Poland May 15, 1440 in Visegrád as King of Hungary
royal house=Jagiellon
father=Jogaila
mother=Sophia of Halshany
consort=
issue=
: "This article refers to the 15th century Jagiellon monarch. For the 12th century Piast monarch, see Władysław III Spindleshanks, and for other monarchs with similar names see Ladislaus Jagiello (disambiguation) or Ladislaus III (disambiguation)".

Vladislaus III of Varna (October 31, 1424 – November 10, 1444, Varna, Bulgaria) was King of Poland from 1434, and of Hungary from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.

Vladislaus III of Varna is known in Polish as "Władysław Warneńczyk"; in Slovak and Czech as "Vladislav I"; in Bulgarian as "Vladislav Varnenchik (Владислав Варненчик)"; in Hungarian as "I. Ulászló"; in Lithuanian as "Vladislovas III"; in Croatian as "Vladislav I. Jagelović".

Royal titles

* Royal title in Latin: "Wladislaus Dei gracia Polonie, Hungarie, Dalmacie, Croacie etc. rex necnon terrarum Cracouie, Sandomirie, Syradie, Lancicie, Cuyauie, Lithuanie princeps supremus, Pomeranie, Russieque dominus et heres etc."

* English translation: "Vladislaus by God's grace king of Poland, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, and lands of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Supreme Prince of Lithuania, lord and heir of Pomerania and Ruthenia"

* Polish translation: "Władysław, z Bożej łaski Król Polski, Węgier, Dalmacji, Chorwacji, ziemi krakowskiej, sandomierskiej, sieradzkiej, łęczyckiej, kujawskiej, Wielki Książę Litewski, pan i dziedzic Pomorza i Rusi"

* Hungarian translation: "Ulászló, Isten kegyelméből Lengyelország, Magyarország, Dalmácia és Horvátország, valamint Krakkó, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia vidékének királya, Litvánia nagyhercege, Pomeránia és Ruténia ura és örököse."

* Lithuanian translation: "Vladislovas, Dievo valia karalius Lenkijos ir žemių Krokuvos, Sandomiro, Sieradžo, Lenčycos, Kujavijos, Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis, Pomeranijos ir Rusios valdovas ir paveldėtojas, etc." (titles need checking).

Biography

Władysław was the first-born son of Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) of Poland and Sophia of Halshany (Zofia Holszańska). He ascended the throne at the age of ten and was immediately surrounded by a group of advisors headed by Zbigniew Cardinal Oleśnicki, who wanted to continue to enjoy his high status at court. In spite of that, the young ruler and his ambitious mother were aware that there was opposition to them. Despite the agreements signed between Władysław Jagiełło and the Polish magnates to ensure the succession for his sons, the opposition wanted another candidate for the Polish throne - Friedrich of Brandenburg, who was betrothed to Jadwiga, Jagiełło's daughter by his second wife. However, the conspiracy was resolved by the death of the princess, rumoured to have been poisoned by Zofia Holszańska.

The young king's reign was difficult from the very outset. His coronation was interrupted by a hostile nobleman, Spytko of Melsztyn. On the next day, the customary homage of the townsfolk of Kraków did not take place due to a dispute between the temporal and spiritual lords of Mazovia over their place in the retinue. Neither did Wladyslaw have much to say later about matters of state, which were run by the powerful Zbigniew Oleśnicki. The situation did not change even after parliament gathered in Piotrków in 1438, and declared the fourteen-year-old king to have attained his majority.

This situation continued until 1440, when Władysław was offered the crown of Hungary. However, accepting it would have led to numerous problems. Hungary was under a growing threat from the Ottoman Empire, and some Polish magnates did not want to agree to the king of Poland also being the monarch of Hungary, while Elisabeth, widow of the deceased king of Hungary, Albert II Habsburg, attempted to keep the crown for her yet unborn child. Such inconveniences aside, Władysław finally took the Hungarian throne, having engaged in a two-year civil war against Elisabeth. He had received significant support from Pope Eugene IV, in exchange for his help in organising an anti-Turkish crusade. The eighteen-year-old king, although thus far a king solely by title, became deeply involved in the crusade, paying no heed to the interests of Poland and of the Jagiellonian dynasty.

[
thumb|left|Władysław_at_the_Battle_of_Varna._Unfinished_painting_by_Jan Matejko.]

The "bulwark of Christianity" and other slogans put forward by the papal envoy Giuliano Cesarini, together with an enticing promise of victory in a glorious crusade for God, persuaded Władysław to engage in a two-year war against the Ottoman Empire. He also accepted the argument that the ten-year truce signed in 1443 in Oradea was not valid since the infidel Turks could not be trusted to keep their word. Despite their significant military advantages, Władysław failed to recognise the serious threat which the Turkish Empire posed to Europe as a whole. Therefore, when the Battle of Varna began on 10 November 1444, the Polish king did not sense that this would be his final fight. He was killed during the charge on the ranks of the janissaries, who were protecting their sultan.

Władysław III had no children and did not get married (contemporary opinions, quoted by Jan Długosz, suggested that he was homosexual). He was succeeded in Poland by his younger brother Casimir IV Jagiellon in 1447 after a three-year interregnum. In Hungary he was succeeded by his former rival, the child Ladislaus Posthumus.

The legend

According to Portuguese legend Władysław survived the Battle of Varna and after his journey to the Holy Land he settled on Madeira Island." [http://www.museuartesacrafunchal.org/arteflamenga/flamenga_pintura_img4.html São Joaquim e Santa Ana] ", Museu de Arte Sacra do Funchal.] King Afonso V of Portugal granted him the lands in Cabo Girão district of the Madeira Islands, rent-free for the rest of his life. He was known there as Henrique Alemão (Henry the German) and married Senhorinha Anes (the King of Portugal was his best man ["Rei de Portugal, D. Afonso V, foi o seu padrinho de casamento" - [http://www.geocities.com/mare_sol2001/lenda_ladislau.htm A Lenda...] Henrique Alemão ou Ladislau III] ), who gave him two sons. Later he become knight of Saint Catharine of Mount Sinai ("O Cavaleiro de Santa Catarina") and established a church of Saint Catherine and Saint Mary Magdalene in Madalena do Mar (1471). [ [http://www.geocities.com/mare_sol2001/lenda_h_alemao.html Henrique Alemão] - Ladislau III da Polónia Lenda ou História?] [ [http://www.diocesedofunchal.pt/portal/index.php?option=com_sobi2&sobi2Task=sobi2Details&sobi2Id=69&catid=6&Itemid=9999999 Diocese do Funchal] , Igreja Santa Maria Madalena em Madalena do Mar.] There he was portraited as Saint Joachim ("São Joaquim") meeting Saint Anne at the Golden Gate on a painting by Master of the Adoration of Machico (Mestre "da Adoração de Machico") in the beginning of the 16th century.

Historical places

As a sign of respect, there is a boulevard in Varna, called "Vladislav Varnenchik", as well as a successful football team named Vladislav Varna in past times. There is also a symbolic Cenotaph of Wladislaus III in Varna.

Ancestors


ahnentafel-compact4
style=font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;
border=1
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
boxstyle_1=background-color: #999;
boxstyle_2=background-color: #bbb;
boxstyle_3=background-color: #ddd;
boxstyle_4=background-color: #eee;
1= Władysław III of Varna
2= Jogaila
3= Sophia of Halshany
4= Algirdas
5= Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver
6= Andrew of Halshany
7= Alexandra Drucka
8= Gediminas
9= Jewna
10=Alexander I of Tver
11=Anastasia of Halych
12=Ivan Olgimontowicz of Halshany
13=Agrippina Sviatoslavna of Smolensk
14=Dimitri Olgierdowic Drucki
15=Anastasia of Ryazan

Gallery

References

ee also

* History of Poland (1385-1569)


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