- Department of Education (Philippines)
Department of Education Kagawaran ng Edukasyon Department overview Formed 21 January 1901 Headquarters DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Annual budget P192.087 billion Department executive Br. Armin Luistro FSC Website www.deped.gov.ph
The Department of Education (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon), is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. The Department of Education is also known by its old name, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon, Kultura at Palakasan).
During the early Spanish period, education in the Philippines was religion-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the Superior Commission of Primary Instruction was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education.
The defeat of Spain by United States forces paved the way for Aguinaldo's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of the Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. However, this first sovereign education system was interrupted with the Philippine–American War, and was finally dismantled. A secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
A highly centralized public school system was instituted in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74. Act No. 74 also established the Department of Public Instruction, which was headed by a General Superintendent. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so much so that the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction to bring 600 teachers from the United States to the Philippines. These would later be popularly known as the Thomasites. The Organic Act of 1916 would reorganize the Department of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act also mandated the Filpinization of all department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction. During World War II, the department was reorganized once again through the Japanese's Military Order No. 2 in 1942, which established the Commission of Education, Health, and Public Welfare. With the establishment of the Japanese-sponsored Republic, the Ministry of Education was created on October 14, 1943. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was given priority. Love for work and the dignity of labor were also emphasized. On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction.
In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1 and subsequently became the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117 of President Corazon C. Aquino. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was established, and in 1995, when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.
The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports. TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development, while CHED is responsible for higher education.
In August 2001, Republic Act No. 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed renaming the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices, which include regional offices, division offices, district offices, and schools.
National Historical Institute, Records Management and Archives Office, and the National Library are now administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines) (NCCA). These are no longer with the Department of Education. The program for school arts and culture, however, remains as part of the school curriculum.
With the enactment of the law, all functions, programs, and activities of the Department of Education related to sports competition were all transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). The program for school sports and physical fitness, however, remains part of the basic education curriculum. In addition, the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports was abolished.
List of Secretaries of Education
Year started Year finished Name President(s) Served Under Secretaries of Public Instruction 1935 1940 Sergio Osmeña Manuel Quezon 1940 1941 Jorge Bocobo Secretaries of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare 1942 1944 Sergio Osmeña José P. Laurel Commissioner of Public Instruction 1942 1943 Claro M. Recto Manuel Quezon Minister of Public Instruction 1943 1945 Jorge Bocobo Manuel Quezon Sergio Osmeña Secretary of Instruction 1946 1948 Dr. Manuel Gallego Manuel Roxas Secretaries of Education, Culture and Sports February 1986 December 1989 Lourdes Quisumbing Corazon Aquino January 1990 June 1992 Isidro Cariño July 1992 July 1994 Armand Fabella Fidel V. Ramos August 1994 December 1997 Ricardo Gloria January 1998 June 1998 Erlinda Pefianco July 1998 January 2001 Br. Andrew González FSC Joseph Estrada February 2001 August 2001 Raúl Roco Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Secretaries of Education August 2001 August 2002 Raúl Roco Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo September 2002 July 2004 Edilberto de Jesus July 2004 July 2005 Florencio Abad July 2005 September 2005 Ramón Bacani * September 2005 July 2006 Fe Hidalgo * July 2006 March 2010 Jesli Lapus March 2010 June 2010 Mona Valisno June 2010 present Br. Armin Luistro FSC Benigno Aquino III
(*) Acting Capacity
Department of Education, Philippines BureausElementary Education • Non-Formal Education • National Educational Testing and Research Center • Secondary Education • Physical Education and School Sports • School Health and Nutrition Center OrganizationsCenter for Students and Co-curricular Affairs Attached agenciesSee also Ministries of Education by country
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