Group 10 element


Group 10 element
Group → 4
↓ Period
4 Nickel, electrolytic made, 99.9% pure
28
Ni
5 Palladium crystal
46
Pd
6 Platinum nugget
78
Pt
7 110
Ds

Legend
Transition metal
Primordial element
Synthetic

A Group 10 element is one in the series of elements in group 10 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of the transition metals nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and darmstadtium (Ds).

Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in its electron configuration, especially the outermost shells (though for this family it is particularly weak with palladium an exceptional case):

Z Element No. of electrons/shell
28 nickel 2, 8, 17, 1
46 palladium 2, 8, 18, 18
78 platinum 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
110 darmstadtium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 1

Properties

Group ten metals are white to light grey in color, and possess a high luster, a resistance to tarnish (oxidation) at STP, are highly ductile, and enter into oxidation states of +2 and +4, with +1 being seen in special conditions. The existence of a +3 state is debated, as the state could be an illusory state created by +2 and +4 states. Theory suggests that group 10 metals may produce a +6 oxidation state under precise conditions, but this remains to be proven conclusively in the laboratory.

Applications

The group ten metals share several uses. These include:

  • Decorative purposes, in the form of jewelry and electroplating.
  • Catalysts in a variety of chemical reactions.
  • Metal Alloys.
  • Electrical components, due to their predictable changes in electrical resistivity with regard to temperature.
  • Superconductors, as components in alloys with other metals.

See also

Explanation of right side periodic table slice: Transition metals atomic number in black are solids solid borders are older than the Earth (Primordial elements) dashed borders have no isotopes older than the earth



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