1285


1285

Events

* January 6 - Archbishop Jakub Świnka orders all priests subject to his bishopry in Poland to deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity.
* April 2 - Pope Honorius IV succeeds Pope Martin IV as the 190th pope.
* April 25 - Mamluk sultan Qalawun begins a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat (in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller thought to be impregnable; he captures the fortress a month later.
* September 4 - Roger of Lauria defeats King Philip III of France in a naval battle off of Barcelona.
* The writ "Circumspecte Agatis", issued by King Edward I of England, defines the jurisdictions of church and state in England, thereby limiting the church's judicial powers to ecclesiastical cases only.
* The Second Statute of Westminster is passed in England, reforming various laws; it includes the famous clause "de donis conditionalibus", considered one of the fundamental institutes of medieval law in England.
* The English romantic poem "The Lay of Havelok the Dane" is written (approximate date).
* Tran Hung Dao leads Vietnamese forces in victory over an invading Yuan dynasty Mongol army.
* Mansa Sakura usurps the throne of the Mali Empire

Births

* March 9 - Emperor Go-Nijo of Japan (d. 1308)
* May 1 - Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, English politician (d. 1326)
* December 6 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile (d. 1312)
* Al-Nasr Muhammad, sultan of Egypt (d. 1341)
* Ziauddin Barani, historian and political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate (d. 1357)
* Patrick Dunbar, 9th Earl of Dunbar (d. 1369)

Deaths

* March 24 - Daumantas, Grand Prince of Lithuania
* March 28 - Pope Martin IV
* May 13 - Robert de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros
* May 20 - John II of Jerusalem, King of Cyprus (b. 1259)
* October 5 - King Philip III of France (b. 1245)
* November 11 - King Peter III of Aragon (b. 1239)
* Tile Kolup, German imposter
* Philip I of Savoy (b. 1207)
* Rutebeuf, French troubadour
* King Charles I of Sicily (b. 1227)


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