Problem of future contingents


Problem of future contingents

The problem of future contingents is a logical paradox first posed by Diodorus Cronus from the Megarian school of philosophy, under the name of the "dominator", and then reactualized by Aristotle in chapter 9 of "On Interpretation". It was later discussed by Leibniz. Deleuze used it to oppose a "logic of the event" to a "logic of signification".

Suppose that a sea-battle will not be fought tomorrow. Then it was also true yesterday (and the week before, and last year) that it will not be fought, since any true statement about what will be the case was also true in the past. But all past truths are necessary truths, therefore it was necessarily true in the past that the battle will not be fought, and thus that the statement that it will be fought is necessarily false (7). Therefore it is not possible that the battle will be fought. In general, if something will not be the case, it is not possible for it to be the case. This conflicts with the idea of our own freedom: that we have the power to determine the course of events in the future, which seems impossible if what happens, or does not happen, was "necessarily" going to happen, or not happen.

Aristotle's solution

Aristotle solved the problem by asserting that the principle of bivalence found its exception in this paradox of the sea battles: in this specific case, what is impossible is that both alternatives can be possible at the same time: either there "will" be a battle, or there won't. Both options can't be simultaneously taken. Today, they are neither true nor false; but if one is true, then the other becomes false. According to Aristotle, it is impossible to say today if the proposition is correct: we must wait for the contingent realization (or not) of the battle, logic realizes itself afterwards::"One of the two propositions in such instances must be true and the other false, but we cannot say determinately that this or that is false, but must leave the alternative undecided. One may indeed be more likely to be true than the other, but it cannot be either actually true or actually false. It is therefore plain that it is not necessary that of an affirmation and a denial, one should be true and the other false. For in the case of that which exists potentially, but not actually, the rule which applies to that which exists actually does not hold good." ( [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/interpretation/ §9] )

For Diodorus, the future battle was either impossible or necessary. Aristotle added a third term, contingency, which saves logic while in the same time leaving place for indetermination in reality. What is necessary is not that there will or that there won't be a battle tomorrow, but the alternative itself is necessary: :"A sea-fight must either take place to-morrow or not, but it is not necessary that it should take place to-morrow, neither is it necessary that it should not take place, yet it is necessary that it either should or should not take place to-morrow." "De Interpretatione"" [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/interpretation/ 9, 19 a 30.]

Thus, the event always comes in the form of the future, undetermined event; logic always comes afterwards. Hegel would say the same thing by claiming that wisdom came at dusk. For Aristotle, this is also a practical, ethical question: to pretend that the future is determined would have unacceptable consequences for man.

Leibniz

Leibniz gave another response to the paradox in [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/Leibniz-Discourse.htm#VI §6] of "Discourse on Metaphysics": "That God does nothing which is not orderly, and that it is not even possible to conceive of events which are not regular." Thus, even a miracle, the Event by excellence, does not break the regular order of things. What is seen as irregular is only a default of perspective, but does not appear so in relation to universal order. Possible exceeds human logics. Leibniz encounters this paradox because according to him::"Thus the quality of king, which belonged to Alexander the Great, an abstraction from the subject, is not sufficiently determined to constitute an individual, and does not contain the other qualities of the same subject, nor everything which the idea of this prince includes. God, however, seeing the individual concept, or haecceity, of Alexander, sees there at the same time the basis and the reason of all the predicates which can be truly uttered regarding him; for instance that he will conquer Darius and Porus, even to the point of knowing a priori (and not by experience) whether he died a natural death or by poison,- facts which we can learn only through history. When we carefully consider the connection of things we see also the possibility of saying that there was always in the soul of Alexander marks of all that had happened to him and evidences of all that would happen to him and traces even of everything which occurs in the universe, although God alone could recognize them all." ( [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/Leibniz-Discourse.htm#VIII §8] ) If everything which happens to Alexander derives from the haecceity of Alexander, then fatalism threatens Leibniz's construction::"We have said that the concept of an individual substance includes once for all everything which can ever happen to it and that in considering this concept one will be able to see everything which can truly be said concerning the individual, just as we are able to see in the nature of a circle all the properties which can be derived from it. But does it not seem that in this way the difference between contingent and necessary truths will be destroyed, that there will be no place for human liberty, and that an absolute fatality will rule as well over all our actions as over all the rest of the events of the world? To this I reply that a distinction must be made between that which is certain and that which is necessary." ( [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/Leibniz-Discourse.htm#VI §13] )Against Aristotle's separation between the subject and the predicate, Leibniz states: "Thus the content of the subject must always include that of the predicate in such a way that if one understands perfectly the concept of the subject, he will know that the predicate appertains to it also." ( [http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/Leibniz-Discourse.htm#VIII §8] ). The predicate (what happens to Alexander) must be completely included in the subject (Alexander) "if one understands perfectly the concept of the subject". Leibniz henceforth distinguish two types of necessity: necessary necessity and contingent necessity, or universal necessity vs singular necessity. Universal necessity concerns universal truths, while singular necessity concerns something necessary which could not be (it is thus a "contingent necessity"). Leibniz hereby uses the concept of compossible worlds. According to Leibniz, contingent acts such as "Caesar crossing the Rubicon" or "Adam eating the apple" are necessary: that is, they are singular necessities, contingents and accidentals, but which concerns the principle of sufficient reason. Furthermore, this leads Leibniz to conceive of the subject not as a universal, but as a singular: it is true that "Caesar crosses the Rubicon", but it is true only of "this" Caesar at this "time", not of any dictator nor of Caesar at any time (§8, 9, 13). Thus Leibniz conceives of substance as plural: there is a plurality of singular substances, which he calls monads. Leibniz hence creates a concept of the individual as such, and attributes to it events. There is a universal necessity, which is universally applicable, and a singular necessity, which applies to each singular substance, or event. There is one proper noun for each singular event: Leibniz creates a logic of singularity, which Aristotle thought impossible (he considered that there could only be knowledge of generality).

References

See also

*In Borges' "The Garden of Forking Paths", both alternatives happen, thus leading to what Deleuze calls "incompossible worlds"

External links

* [http://www.ephilosopher.com/article496.html Ephilosopher] , "Sea Battles, Futures Contingents, and Relative Truth" and "Future Contingent and Relative Truth" by John MacFarlane, "The Philosophical Quarterly" 53 (2003), 321-36
* [http://www.cerphi.net/lec/even2.htm CERPHI] fr icon
*Jules Vuillemin, " [http://www.erudit.org/revue/philoso/1983/v10/n1/203211ar.pdf Le chapitre IX du De Interpretatione d'Aristote - Vers une réhabilitation de l'opinion comme connaissance probable des choses contingentes] , in "Philosophiques", vol. X, n°1, April 1983 fr icon


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ockham’s world and future — Arthur Gibson PHILOSOPHICAL BIOGRAPHY Ockham was born in about 1285, certainly before 1290, probably in the village of Ockham, Surrey, near London. If his epitaph is accurate, he died on 10 April 1347. Yet Conrad of Megenberg, when writing to… …   History of philosophy

  • Diodorus Cronus — (Greek: Διόδωρος Κρόνος; died c. 284 BCE[1]) was a Greek philosopher and dialectician connected to the Megarian school. He was most notable for logic innovations, including his master argument fomulated in response to Aristotle s discussion of… …   Wikipedia

  • De Interpretatione — Part of a series on Aristotle …   Wikipedia

  • Free will — This article is about the philosophical questions of free will. For other uses, see Free will (disambiguation). A domino s movement is determined completely by laws of physics. Incompatibilists say that this is a threat to free will, but… …   Wikipedia

  • Determinism — This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. For other uses, see Determinism (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Fatalism, Predeterminism, or Predictability. Certainty series …   Wikipedia

  • Philosophical realism — Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that our reality, or some aspect of it, is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds, the past,… …   Wikipedia

  • Modal logic — is a type of formal logic that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality. Modals words that express modalities qualify a statement. For example, the statement John is happy might be qualified by… …   Wikipedia

  • Fatalism — Certainty series Agnosticism Belief Certainty Doubt Determinism Epistemology Estimation Fallibilism …   Wikipedia

  • Dialetheism — is the view that some statements can be both true and false simultaneously. More precisely, it is the belief that there can be a true statement whose negation is also true. Such statements are called true contradictions , or dialetheia.… …   Wikipedia

  • sea-battle — (or seafight ) The example with which Aristotle introduces problems of inevitability and necessity in Bk. ix of De Interpretatione . It is necessary that either there will be a sea battle tomorrow, or there will not. Whichever happens, it is now… …   Philosophy dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.