- Saints in Anglicanism
Catholicsense the term "saint" refers to any person in Heaven—however, since the 10th century, the title "Saint" is only given to persons who have been officially recognized by the Church. In the days when the Church of Englandwas in union with Rome, recognition was in the form of canonization. Those martyrs and confessors given the title traditionally, prior to the establishment of the canonization process or since the break with Rome, are generally still considered both "saints" and "Saints." ["The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church" by F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor) Oxford University Press, USA; 3 edition p.1444-1445 (March 13, 1997) ] The title "Hero" is sometimes used as well, more often to refer to those Saints who have lived and died since the time of the Reformation.
The provinces of the
Anglican Communioncommemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, often on the same days. In some cases, the Anglican Calendars have retained traditional feasts that the Roman Catholic Churchhas abolished or moved.
Like the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion has special holy days in honor of
Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin Maryand the Apostles. Many of the parishes churches in the Communion have the names Christ Church, and St. Mary the Virgin. The same can also be said for the four great patrons of the United Kingdom: Saint George(Patron of England), Saint David(Patron of Wales), Saint Patrick(Patron of Ireland), and Saint Andrew(Patron of Scotland).
English and local saints are often emphasized, and there are differences between the provinces' calendars. King Charles I of England is the only person to have been effectively canonized as a saint by the Anglican Church after the English Reformation, when he was referred to as a martyr and included in the calendar of the Book of Common Prayer. [cite web | last = Major | first = Richard | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 2006 | url = http://www.stmarysi.com/sermons/pdf/29i06a.pdf | title = Anglican heroics? Sermon for the feast of King Charles the martyr | format = pdf | work = | publisher = Rector, St Mary's Episcopal Church, Staten Island, New York | accessdate = 2007-02-22] This canonisation is not, however, considered universal in the Anglican Church worldwide, and many national Churches list him as a martyr and not a Saint, or as neither.
There are several persons commemorated in the modern Anglican calendars who were opposed to the
English Reformation. Of particular note are John Wycliffeand William Tyndale, the last of whom King Henry VIII had executed by strangulation in Belgium for his Protestantviews, for beginning the translation of the Bible from the original languages (a project which led to the Geneva Bibleand Authorised Version), and for publishing a number of theological works decrying the many heresies that had been adopted in the church of Rome.
Oxford Martyrs, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, and Hugh Latimer, are also commemorated for the courage they showed in death, and for their belief in a free Church of England.
In the 19th century a group of Anglican and Roman Catholic converts were martyred together in Uganda. On 18 October 1964, Pope Paul VI canonised the 22 Ugandan martyrs who were Roman Catholics.
Anglican Churches also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation) Christians. The West front of
Westminster Abbey, for example, contains statues of 20th century martyrs like Maximilian Kolbe, Martin Luther King, Oscar Romero, Dietrich Bonhoefferand Lucian Tapiedi, one of the Anglican New Guinea Martyrs.
ome traditional Anglican saints
William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx
Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth
*Kentigern, Bishop of
Bishop of Worcester
Richard Rolleof Hampole, Spiritual Writer
*Brigid, Abbess of Kildare
Bishop of Lichfield
Felix, Bishop, Apostle to the East Angles
Bishop of Lindisfarne
William of Ockham, Friar, Philosopher
Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, Martyr
Anselm of Canterbury, Archbishop of Canterbury
Mellitus, first Bishop of London
Julian of Norwich, Spiritual Writer, Mystic
Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury
Alcuinof York, Deacon, Abbot of Tours
Venerable Bede, Monk at Jarrow, Scholar, Historian
Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne
Augustine of Canterbury, first Archbishop of Canterbury
*Petroc, Missionary to the
Columba, Abbot of Iona, Missionary
Richard, Bishop of Chichester
Etheldreda, Abbess of Ely
*Swithun, Bishop of Winchester
Bishop of Salisbury
*Oswald, King of Northumbria, Martyr
*Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, Missionary
Birinus, Bishop of Dorchester, Apostle of Wessex
*Ninian, Bishop of Galloway, Apostle of the
*Hildegard, Abbess of Bingen, Visionary
Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury
William Tyndale, Translator of the Scriptures, Martyr
Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, Philosopher, Scientist
*Paulinus, Archbishop of York, Missionary
*Wilfrid, Bishop, Missionary
Edward the Confessor, King of England
Cedd, Abbot of Lastingham, Bishop of the East Saxons
Willibrordof York, Bishop, Apostle of Frisia
*Margaret, Queen of Scotland, Mystic
Edmund Richof Abingdon, Archbishop of Canterbury
*Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln
*Hilda, Abbess of Whitby, 680
*Edmund, King of the East Angles, Martyr
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Martyr
Examples of modern Anglican saints
The ninth Lambeth Conference held in 1958 clarified the commemoration of Saints and Heroes of the Christian Church in the Anglican Communion. Resolution 79 stated:
*In the case of scriptural saints, care should be taken to commemorate men or women in terms which are in strict accord with the facts made known in Holy Scripture.
*In the case of other names, the Calendar should be limited to those whose historical character and devotion are beyond doubt.
*In the choice of new names economy should be observed and controversial names should not be inserted until they can be seen in the perspective of history.
*The addition of a new name should normally result from a wide-spread desire expressed in the region concerned over a reasonable period of time.
The following have been identified as heroes of the Christian Church in the Anglican Communion:
Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, Spiritual Writer, Theologian
George Augustus Selwyn, Bishop of New Zealand
William Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore, Spiritual Writer, Translator of Bible into Irish and Book of Common Prayer into Italian language
Thomas Bray, Founder of the SPCK
John Bunyan, Spiritual Writer
Joseph Butler, Bishop of Durham, Philosopher
Josephine Butler, Social Reformer
John Donne, Priest, Poet
Julia Chester Emery, Upholder of Missions
Nicholas Ferrar, Deacon, Founder of the Little Gidding Community
George Herbert, Priest, Poet
*Richard Hooker, Priest, Apologist, Theologian
John Keble, Priest, Tractarian, Poet
Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells
Bishop of Lincoln
Clive Staples Lewis, Spiritual Writer, Apologist
William Law, Priest, Spiritual Writer,
Frederick Denison Maurice, Priest
Constance Markievicz, Social Reformer
Bernard Mizeki, Apostle of the MaShona, Martyr
John Mason Neale, Priest, Hymn Writer
John Henry Newman, Priest, Tractarian, Theologian
Florence Nightingale, Nurse, Social Reformer
John Coleridge Patteson, first bishop of Melanesiaand martyr
Edward Bouverie Pusey, Priest, Tractarian
Samuel Seabury, first Anglican Bishop in North America
Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down and Connor
*William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury
Evelyn Underhill, Spiritual Writer
Isaac Watts, Hymn Writer
Charles Wesley, Evangelist, Hymn Writer
John Wesley, Evangelist, Hymn Writer
William Wilberforce, Social Reformer
List of Anglican Church Calendars
* [http://www.lambethconference.org/resolutions/1958/1958-79.cfm 1958 Lambeth Conference resolution on The Commemoration of Saints and Heroes of the Christian Church in the Anglican Communion]
* The Commemoration of Saints and Heroes of the Faith in the Anglican Communion; the report of a Commission appointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury. London, S.P.C.K., 1957.
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