- Ibibio people
infobox ethnic group
Nsibidisymbols which where created by the Ibibio, Efikand Annangpeople by members of the Ekpesociety
pop=Over 5 million
popplace = NGR 4,482,000 [http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=103938&rog3=NI]
region1 = GHA
ref1 = [http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=103938&rog3=GH]
ref2 = [http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=103938&rog3=CM]
ref3 = [http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=103938&rog3=EK]
Christianity, traditional, Islam
langs= Ibibio, English
Efik, Ejagham, Annang, Igbo, Ijaw
The Ibibio (also known as Moco or Moko during slavery) people are an ethnic group in southeastern
Nigeria. They are closely related to the Annangand the Efikpeoples. "Ibibio" may also refer to those who speak the Ibibio language. Ibibio was an ancient state in the old Calabar Kingdom. During colonial period in Nigeria, the Ibibio Union was formed asking for recognition by the British as a sovereign state (Noah, 1988)
The Ibibio people are found predominately in
Akwa Ibom stateand is made up of the related Annang community, the Ibibio community and the Eket and Oron Communities, although other groups usually understand the ibibio language. Because of the larger population of the Ibibio people, they hold political control over Akwa-Ibom State, but government is shared with the Annangs, Eket and Oron. The political system follows the traditional method of consensus. Even though elections are held, practically, the political leaders are pre-discussed in a manner that is benefiting to all.
The Ibibio have lived in the Cross River area of modern day Nigeria for several hundred years, and while written information about them only exists in colonial records from the late 1800s on, oral traditions have them in the region much earlier than this. With common ancestors, the Ibibio also include the Annang and the Efik, Oron and Eket with combined population of over ten million. History has it that their ancestors were Egyptian Jews that resulted from the marriage of Israelites to
Egyptian who migrated from Egypt through Ethiopiaand Sudaninto their present land via Ghanaand Cameroon(see African Jews).
"Ibio-ibio" means short or brief and doesn't have anything to do with height of the Ibibios. There are many areas in Ibibio land that have their dialectical differences. In some places family is called "ekwere" and "ekpuk" in other areas. Goat is called "ibot" in eastern Ibibio ikono (present day ikono local government area) but called "ebot" in others. Head is pronounced "iwud" in some areas but called "ibuot" in others. Road is called "okpo-di-ghe" and "usung" in other places.
The Ibibio people were located in the Eastern Nigeria of Nigeria under British rule. The Eastern region was split into three states (Southeastern State was where the Ibibio were located, one of the original twelve states of Nigeria) after Nigerian independence. The Efik, Annang, Oron, Eket and their brothers and sisters of the Ogoja District, where also found in the Southeastern state. The state (Southeastern State) was later partitioned into two states (Akwa-Ibom state and Cross River State).
The Ibibios are republican in nature. The issue of kingship in Ibibio is a modern day creation. First is the family head who oversees the family. After this is the village head; Ibibio is made up of villages though now there are towns like Uyo, Eket (a subgroup), Itu, Ibiaku, Ntok, Okpo etc.
The main economic staple in the region is the palm tree, the oil of which is extracted and sold to external markets. Among the Ibibio, those of the highest rank in the Ekpo society, Amama, often control the majority of the community wealth. The Amama often appropriate hundreds of acres of palm tree for their own use and ensure with the profits they earn that their sons achieve comparable rank, effectively limiting access to economic gain for most members of the community. The Ekpo society requires that its initiates sponsor feasts for the town, which fosters the appearance of the redistribution of wealth by providing the poor with food and drink. In effect, this allows the disparity in wealth to be perpetuated in Ibibio society.
Individual villages are ruled by a group of village elders (Ekpo Ndem Isong) and the heads of extended families. Their decisions are enforced by members of the Ekpo society who act as messengers of the ancestors (ikan). Ekpo members are always masked when performing their policing duties, and although their identities are almost always known, fear of retribution from the ancestors prevents most people from accusing those members who overstep their social boundaries, effectively committing police brutality. Membership is open to all Ibibio males, but one must have access to wealth to move into the politically influential grades.
Ibibio religion is based on paying tribute to the village ancestors. Failing to appease these ancestors will result in the wrath of the
Ekpesociety. The most important ancestors are those who achieved high rank while living, usually the house heads. They may control the fortunes of the descendants and are free to afflict those who fail to make the proper offering or those who fail to observe kinship norms. Ala is the earth deity and is appeased through Ogbom ceremony, which is believed to make children plentiful and to increase the harvest. It is performed in the middle of the year, every eighth day for eight weeks by each section of the village in turn.
Colonial and Post-Colonial Era
The Ibibios were introduced to
Christianitythrough the work of early missionaries in the 19th Century. Reverend Samuel Bill started his work at Ibeno. He established the qua iboe church which later spread places in the middle belt of Nigeria. The methodist church, the Roman Catholic church, and Presbyterian churchrode into the ibibio hinterland. Later, day churches where also introduced, for e.g. The Apostolic church, Independent churches, like Deeper Life Bible Church, came into the area in the second part of the 20th Century. Today Ibibio people are predominately Christian area.
The Ibibio practiced the killing of
twinsbefore it was abolished during the colonial era, with help of missionary Mary Slessor. Twins born were taken to their communities local evil forest and left to die as it was a taboo for twins to be born. In places such as Ikot Antem, Ediene Usung Itu, Ikono local government area, such practices were common. This belief corresponds with the same taboo that has been previously found with the Igbo people.
The masks and accouterments of the
Ekpesociety make up the greatest works of art in Ibibio society. Drumming and music are also important elements in Ekpe ceremonies. The wooden sculpture from this area is also very detailed, and artists are just as likely to capture beauty as they are the hideous forms of evil spirits.
*Monday Efiong Noah, Proceedings of the Ibibio Union 1928-1937. Modern Business Press Ltd, Uyo.
States in Ancient Calabar Kingdom
* [http://www.zyama.com/ibibio/pics..htm Ibibio people]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Ibibio — could refer to: *Ibibio language *Ibibio peopleee also*Annang *Efik *Oron *Eket *Ikom *Akamkpa *Bakassi *Calabar Kingdom *Ekpe *Nsibidi *Manillas *States in Ancient Calabar Kingdom *African Jews … Wikipedia
Ibibio — /ib euh bee oh/, n., pl. Ibibios, (esp. collectively) Ibibio for 1. 1. a member of a people of southeastern Nigeria. 2. the Benue Congo language of the Ibibio people, very closely related to Efik. * * * People of southeastern Nigeria. Their… … Universalium
ibibio — ˌibəˈbē(ˌ)ō noun (plural ibibio or ibibios) Usage: usually capitalized 1. a. : a people of southeastern Nigeria b. : a member of such people 2 … Useful english dictionary
Ibibio — noun a) an ethnic group of southern Nigeria b) the language spoken by the Ibibio people of southern Nigeria … Wiktionary
Ibibio — [ib΄ə bē′ō] n. 1. pl. Ibibios or Ibibio a member of a people of SE Nigeria 2. the Niger Congo language of this people … English World dictionary
Ibibio language — Infobox Language name=Ibibio states=Southern Nigeria region=Akwa Ibom State speakers=1,5 to 2 million familycolor=Niger Congo fam2=Atlantic Congo fam3=Benue Congo fam4=Cross River fam5=Lower Cross fam8=Obolo fam9=Efik iso2=bnt|iso3=ibbIbibio… … Wikipedia
Ibibio — /ɪˈbɪbioʊ/ (say i bibeeoh) noun 1. a people living in south eastern Nigeria, especially near or in the port of Calabar. 2. (plural Ibibio or Ibibios) a member of this people. 3. the language spoken by this people. –adjective 4. of or relating to… … Australian English dictionary
Ibibio — [ˌɪbɪ bi:əʊ] noun (plural same or Ibibios) 1》 a member of a people of southern Nigeria. 2》 the Benue Congo language of the Ibibio. Origin the name in Ibibio … English new terms dictionary
Oron people — Oron … Wikipedia
Igbo people — Ndị Igbọ O. Equiano • Jaja of Opobo • Chinua Achebe • C.N. Adichie Total population 15–30 million worldwide (est.) … Wikipedia