Pama-Nyungan languages


Pama-Nyungan languages

Infobox Language family
name=Pama-Nyungan
familycolor=Australian
region= Victoria River, Northern Territory
fam1= Macro-Pama-Nyungan
fam2=Greater Pama-Nyungan
child1 = Yolŋu Matha
child2 = Pama-Maric
child3 = Nyawaygic
child4 = Waka-Kabic
child5 = Durubalic
child6 = Yuin-Kuric
child7 = Wiradhuric
child8 = Baagandji
child9 = Yotayotic
child10 = Kulinic
child11 = Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
child12 = Karnic
child13 = "Pitta-Pitta"
child14 = "Arabana"
child15 = Yardli
child16 = Wagaya-Warluwaric
child17 = Kalkatungic
child18 = Arandic
child19 = Southwest (Nyungic)
child20 = "Muk Thang"
"Dhuduroa"
"Kala Lagaw Ya" (Mabuiag)
"Muruwari"
"Warumungu"
"Flinders Island"
"Barrow Point"
"Bandjalang"
"Pallangahmiddang"
The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Indigenous Australian languages.

The Pama-Nyungan family was identified and named by Kenneth Hale, in his work on the classification of Native Australian languages. Hale realised that of the Aboriginal Australian languages, one relatively closely-interrelated family had spread and proliferated over most of the continent, while approximately a dozen other families were concentrated along the North coast. The Pama-Nyungan family accounts for most of the geographic spread, most of the Aboriginal population, and the greatest number of languages.

The name "Pama-Nyungan" was derived from the names of two widely-separated groups, the Pama languages from the Northeast, and the Nyungan languages from the Southwest. The terms "pama" and "nyunga" are expressions meaning "man" in the languages from their respective regions.

The other language families indigenous to the continent of Australia are occasionally referred to, by exclusion, as Non-Pama-Nyungan languages, though this is not a proper taxonomic term.

Although counting languages is not, in general, a well-defined operation, there are on the order of hundreds of Pama-Nyungan languages. Most of the Pama-Nyungan languages are spoken by small ethnic groups, with thousands of speakers or fewer. Many are considered endangered languages, and many have recently become extinct.

Classification and Languages

According to Nicholas Evans at the Australian National University, the closest relative of Pama-Nyungan is the Garawa isolate, followed by the small Tankic family. He then proposes a more distant relationship with the Gunwinyguan languages in a macro-family he calls Macro-Pama-Nyungan.

Pama-Nyungan proper includes approximately 175 languages in 14 extant and numerous extinct branches.

*Yuulngu or Yolŋu Matha: Djinang, Dhangu, Dhuwal, Djinba, Ritharngu, Dhay'yi, Yan-nhangu
*"Kala Lagaw Ya" (Mabuiag)
*Northeast (Pama-Maric)
**(See article for membership)
*Nyawaygic: Nyawaygi, Wulguru
*Waka-Kabic: Darambal, Bayali, Gureng Gureng, Gabi, Wuliwuli, Waga, Barunggam, Muringam
*Durubalic: Turrubal, Gowar
*Gumbaynggiric: Gumbaynggir, Yaygir
*Yuin-Kuric: Ugarapul, Yugambeh, Nganyaywana, Dyangadi, Worimi, Awabakal, Gudungura, Ngarigu, Thawa, Dyirringany, Dhurga, Dharawal, Darkinyung, Dharuk
*Wiradhuric: Gamilaraay, Ngiyambaa, Wiradhuri
*Baagandji: Bandjigali, Baagdandji
*Yotayotic: Yotayota, Yabula-Yabula
*Kulinic: Wemba Wemba, Nari Nari, Wathawurung, Kolakngat, Wuywurung, Bungandidj, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Chaap Wuurong
*Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic: Ngarinyeri, Ngayawung, Yuyu, Keramin, Yitha-Yitha
*Karnic (reduced): Ngamini, Yandruwandha, Diyari, Pirlatapa, Yarluyandi, Garuwali, Midhaga, ? Lhanima
*"Pitta-Pitta"
*"Arabana"
*Yardli: Malyangaba, Yardliwarra
*Wagaya-Warluwaric: Wagaya, Yindjilandji, Warluwara
*Kalkatungic: Kalkatungu, Yalarnnga
*Arandic: Kaytetye, Alyawarre, Arrernte, Lower Arrernte, Andegerebinha, Anmatyerre
*Southwest
**(See article for membership)
*"Muk Thang"
*"Dhuduroa"
*"Muruwari"
*"Warumungu"
*"Flinders Island"
*"Barrow Point"
*"Bandjalang"
*"Pallangahmiddang"

ee also

* Gunwinyguan languages
*Macro-Pama-Nyungan languages
*Southwest Pama-Nyungan languages
*Proto-Pama-Nyungan language

References

*McConvell, Patrick and Nicholas Evans. (eds.) 1997. "Archaeology and Linguistics: Global Perspectives on Ancient Australia." Melbourne: Oxford University Press
*Evans, Nicholas. (eds.) 2003. "The Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages of Northern Australia. Comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region." Canberra: Pacific Linguistics


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Macro-Pama-Nyungan languages — Infobox Language family name = Macro Pama Nyungan region = northern Australia family = recently proposed family of Australian languages. familycolor = Australian child1 = Gunwinyguan child2 = Tankic child3 = Garawa child4 = Pama Nyungan… …   Wikipedia

  • Southwest Pama-Nyungan languages — Infobox Language family name=South West Pama Nyungan region=Southwestern Australia familycolor=Australian fam1=Pama Nyungan child1=Ngayarta child2=Kanyara child3=NyungicThe South West Pama Nyungan or Nyungic language group is the most diverse and …   Wikipedia

  • Pama-Nyungan — may refer to: *Pama Nyungan languages, an Australian language family *Proto Pama Nyungan language, their hypothetical ancestor …   Wikipedia

  • Pama-Nyungan — /pah meuh nyoong geuhn/, n. a family of Australian aboriginal languages, the most widespread within the Australian group of languages. * * * …   Universalium

  • Pama-Nyungan — /pamə ˈnjʊŋən/ (say pahmuh nyoonguhn) noun a family of Australian Aboriginal languages, approximately covering the area south of an imaginary line from the Kimberley region to the Gulf of Carpentaria. {from the Australian Aboriginal words for man …   Australian English dictionary

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  • Pama-Nyungan — noun the most widespread family of Australian Aboriginal languages, including Pitjantjatjara and Warlpiri …   Wiktionary