- United Press International
United Press International (UPI) is a
news agencyheadquartered in the United Stateswith roots dating back to 1907. Once a mainstay in the newswire service along with Associated Press(AP) and Reuters, the popularity of the televised evening news and the resulting decline in the afternoon newspapers began a period of decline for UPI. This decline accelerated after the sale of UPI by the founding Scripps family culminating in two bankruptcies. In 2000 UPI was purchased by News World Communications, a media company owned by Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church". [ [http://www.cjr.org/resources/index.php?c=newsworld News World Communications, Inc.)UPI is headquartered in Washington D.C. During the mid-1980s, at the height of its expansion, UPI operated more than 180 news bureaus around the world and employed nearly 2,000 salaried journalists. Today, except for its Washington office, UPI neither owns nor leases any news bureaus, although it does employ freelance journalists in several of the world's major cities. ] The news wire's daily coverage today includes domestic and international top news, business, entertainment, sports, science, health and "Quirks in the News" through its NewsTrack service, as well as coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry and energy resources. UPI's content is presented in text, video and photo formats. Its news stories are filed in English, Spanish and Arabic.
United Press Associations
Newspaper publisherE.W. Scripps (1854–1926) created the first chain of newspapers in the United States. After the Associated Pressrefused to sell its services to several of his papers, Scripps together with partner Milton A. McRaecombined three regional news services (the Publisher's Press Association, Scripps McRae Press Association, and the Scripps News Association) into the "United Press Associations", which began service on June 21, 1907. Scripps founded United Press on the principle that there should be no restrictions on who could buy news from a news service.
United Press became the only privately-owned major news service in the world at a time when the world news scene was dominated by the Associated Press in the United States and by the news agencies abroad, which were controlled directly or indirectly by their respective governments: Reuters in Britain,
Havasin France, and Wolff in Germany. William Randolph Hearstentered the fray in 1909 when he founded International News Service.
The AP was owned by its newspaper members, who could simply decline to serve the competition. Scripps had refused to become a member of AP, calling it a "
monopoly, pure and simple" and declaring it was "impossible for any new paper to be started in any of the cities where there were AP members." (AP appeared in 1848, when six New York Citynewspapers formed a cooperative to gather and share telegraphnews, but the name "Associated Press" did not come into general use until the 1860s.)
Scripps believed that there should be no restrictions on who could buy news from a news service and he made UP available to anyone, including his competitors. He later said: "I regard my life's greatest service to the people of this country to be the creation of the United Press."Fact|date=February 2007
Frank Bartholomew, UPI's last reporter-president, took over in 1955, obsessed with bringing Hearst's International News Service(INS) into UP. He put the "I" in UPI on May 24, 1958, when UP and INS merged to become "United Press International". Hearst, who owned King Features Syndicate, received a small share of the merged company. Lawyers on both sides worried about anti-trustproblems if King competitor United Features Syndicateremained a part of the newly merged company, so it was made a separate Scripps company, which deprived UPI of a persuasive sales tool and the money generated by Charles M. Schulz' popular " Peanuts" and other comic strips.
The new UPI had 6,000 employees and 5,000 subscribers, 1,000 of them newspapers.
Later that year, it launched the UPI Audio Network, the first wire service radio network. In 1960, subsidiaries included UFS, United Press Movietone, a
televisionfilm service, was operated jointly with 20th Century Fox, the British United Pressand Ocean Press.
The Associated Press - AP - was a publishers' cooperative and could assess its members to help pay for extraordinary coverage of such events as wars, the
Olympic Games, or national political conventions. UPI clients, in contrast, paid a fixed annual rate; depending on individual contracts, UPI could not always ask them to help shoulder the extraordinary coverage costs. Newspapers typically paid UPI about half what they paid AP in the same cities for the same services: At one point, for example, the " Chicago Sun-Times" paid AP $12,500 a week, but UPI only $5,000; the " Wall Street Journal" paid AP $36,000 a week, but UPI only $19,300.
UPI was hurt by changes in the modern news business, including the closing of many of America's afternoon newspapers, resulting in its customer base shrinking. It went through seven owners between 1992 and 2000. UPI's end as a truly viable news service occurred in 1999 when its remaining contracts were sold to its one-time rival - AP.
UPI purchased by the Unification Church
UPI was purchased in 2000 by Sun Myung Moon's global media conglomerate
News World Communications, becoming an addition to the Unification Churchmedia portfolio. At the time Moon said:
:"We even have to utilize the media for the sake of church development. The church is the mind and the media is the body, to reach the external world. We should begin that movement and activity in the United States, because the Washington Times and UPI are headquartered there. Once we establish our organization in the United States, it can be expanded to the world without much alteration." cite web|url=http://www.unification.net/news/news20001206.html |title=Rev. Sun Myung Moon; Talks Given on His South American Tour, November 29-December 6, 2000 |accessdate=2008-03-07 |last=Moon |first=Sun Myung |date=2000-12-06] cite encyclopedia |last=Johnson |first=Bridget |author=Bridget Johnson |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor=Michael Daecher |encyclopedia=About.com |title=New Washington Times Editor Alters Loaded Style |url=http://journalism.about.com/b/2008/03/02/new-washington-times-editor-alters-loaded-style.htm |accessdate=2008-03-07 |edition= |date=2008-02-03 |year=2008 |publisher=About, Inc.,; The New York Times Company |volume= |location=New York, New York |id= |doi= |pages= |quote=""The church is the mind and the media is the body, to reach the external world. We should begin that movement and activity in the United States, because the Washington Times and UPI are headquartered there. Once we establish our organization in the United States, it can be expanded to the world without much alteration." ]
After 57 years with UPI, its best-known reporter
Helen Thomasresigned her position as UPI's chief White Housecorrespondent in May 2000, the day after it was acquired by News World. [cite news | first=David | last=Stout | coauthors= | title=Helen Thomas, Washington Fixture, Resigns as U.P.I. Reporter | date= 2000-05-17| publisher= | url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F04E2DF1F3BF934A25756C0A9669C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print | work =The New York Times | pages = | accessdate = 2008-03-07 | language = ] Since the resignation of Thomas, UPI for the first time, does not have a reporter in the White House press corps. [ [http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003610526 "UPI Staff Cuts Include White House Correspondent"] , Editor & Publisher, July 11, 2007]
In 2004, UPI won the Clapper Award from the Senate Press Gallery and the Fourth Estate Award for its investigative reporting on the dilapidated hospitals awaiting wounded U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq.
By 2007, UPI, which once had 6000 employees in 223 news and picture bureaus around the world, thousands of nonstaff “stringers,” and 7,500 customers in 100 countries, had fewer than 50 employees. In August 2007, the company reduced that number further, and currently has only five reporters in its Washington D. C. headquarters. Several dozen stringers still file regular reports from key regions of the world. More than a dozen editors are stationed in various cities in the United States and elsewhere.
People of UPI
United Press editor
Lucien Carr, whose roommate Jack Kerouacwrote " On the Road" on a continuous roll of UP teletypepaper, once said: "UP's great virtue was that we were the little guy [that] could screw the AP."News people who worked for UPI are nicknamed "Unipressers". Famous Unipressers from UPI's past include journalists and reporters Oscar Fraley, Walter Cronkite, David Brinkley, Howard K. Smith, Eric Sevareid, Helen Thomas, Pye Chamberlayne, Frank Bartholomew, Hugh Baillie, Vernon Scott, Chauncey Bailey, Robert H Tanji(Tokyo journalist/editor murdered on the job), William L. Shirer(who is best remembered today for writing " The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich"), " The New York Times's" Thomas Friedman, " The Times" of London's Marie Colvin, and Myram Borders, longtime reporter and chief of the Las Vegas bureau for nearly 25 years (and who broke numerous stories, including Elvis Presley's marriage to Priscilla as the wedding was in progress).
photographers saw their work published in hundreds of publications worldwide, including "Life", "Look", and other magazines, as well as newspapers in the United States. Under their work, the only credit line was "UPI". Not until after the 1970s, when their names began appearing under their pictures, did a number of UPI's photographers achieve celebrity within the journalism community. UPI photographers who won Pulitzer Prizes include Andrew Lopez (1960), Kyoichi Sawada(1966), Toshio Sakai(1968) and David Hume Kennerly(1972). Tom Gralishwon a Pulitzer Prizeand the Robert F. KennedyJournalism Award in 1986 after leaving UPI for " The Philadelphia Inquirer". Dirck Halsteadfounded "The Digital Journalist".
Books about UPI include
Joe Alex Morris's "Deadline Every Minute" (1957), Gregory Gordonand Ronald E. Cohen's "Down To The Wire" (1990); Richard M. Hartnettand Billy G. Ferguson's "Unipress" (2003), and Gary Haynes's "Picture This: The Inside Story of UPI Newspictures" (2006) with a foreword by former Unipresser Walter Cronkite. Well-known photographers from UPI include Joe Marquette, Darryl Heikes, Carlos Shiebeck, David Hume Kennerly, Ernie Schwork, James Atherton, James Smestad, Tom Gralish, and Bill Snead. Richard Harnett, who spent more than 30 years at UPI, recalls what is often considered its greatest achievement: Merriman Smith's Pulitzer Prize-winning coverage of John F. Kennedy's assassination. "Smith was in the press car...When he heard shots, he called in to the Dallas office and sent a flash bulletin," Harnett says. "The AP reporter started pounding on his shoulder to get to the phone, but Merriman kept it from him." (Quoted - Brill's Content, April 2001)
Nine staffers have won eight Pulitzer Prizes while working for UPI:
Russell Jones(International Reporting, 1957), Andrew Lopez(News Photography, 1960), Yasushi Nagao(News Photography, 1961), Merriman Smith(National Reporting, 1964), Kyoichi Sawada(News Photography, 1966), Toshio Sakai(Feature Photography, 1968), Lucinda Franksand Thomas Powers(National Reporting, 1971), and David Kennerly(Feature Photography, 1972). Arnaud de Borchgrave, " Newsweek"'s chief foreign correspondent for 25 years, covering more than 90 countries and 17 wars, is currently UPI Editor-at-Large. He began his journalistic career at United Press in 1946.
UPI also employs columnists, whose articles are sent to international papers and agencies. Current UPI columnists include, amongst others:
Marc S. Ellenbogenwith “Atlantic Eye”
William S. Lindwith “Military Matters”
Loren B. Thompsonwith “Thompson Files”
* Martin Walker with “Walkers World”
U.S. employees of UPI are represented by the
News Media Guild.
*In 1908, UP pioneered the transmission of feature stories and use of reporter
Edward Kleinschmidtinvented the teletype, which replaced Morse codeclickers in delivering news to newspapers. Press critic Oswald Garrison Villardcredits United Press with the first use of the teletype.
*In the 1920s and 1930s, United Press pioneered its financial wire service and organized the
United Feature Syndicate.
*Founded in the 1930's was "Ocean Press", a news service for oceanliners, consisting of copy from United Press and later United Press International. This ship-board publication was published by a separate corporate subsidiary of Scripps, but essentially under one roof with UP/UPI at the Daily News Building in New York. The subheadline under the "Ocean Press" logo was: "WORLDWIDE NEWS of UNITED PRESS . . . TRANSMITTED by RADIOMARINE CORPORATION OF AMERICA" ... which appears to have been a subsidiary of
RCA. Some mastheads were labeled "UNITED PRESS - RCA NEWS SERVICE."
* In 1935, UP was the first major news service to offer news to broadcasters.
*1945 saw it launch the first all-sports wire.
* In 1948, UP
Movietone, a newsfilm syndication service, was started with 20th Century Fox.
*In 1951, United Press offered the first
teletypesetter(TTS) service, enabling newspapers to automatically set and justify type from wire transmissions.
*In 1952, United Press launched the first international
televisionnews film service.
* The [http://www.audiocenter.com/up-march.ram 'UPI March'] , as written and performed by the Cities Service Band of America under the direction of
Paul Lavalle, debuted at the Belasco Theaterin New York on December 9, 1952. The UPI March was also played at the coronationof Queen Elizabeth II.
*In 1953, UPI had the first, fully automatic photo receiver,
*In 1958, it launched the UPI Audio Network, the first wire service
*In 1974, it launched the first "high-speed" data newswire - operating at 1,200 WPM.
April 19, 1979, UPI announced an agreement with Telecomputing Corp. of Americato make the UPI world news reportavailable to owners of home computers. Later, UPI was the first news service to provide news to dial-upservices and web search pioneers Yahoo!and Excite.
*In 1981, UPI launched the first
satellitedata transmissions by a news agency.
*In 1982, UPI pioneered an eight-level
Custom Codingsystem that allows clients to choose stories based on topic, subtopic and location. It developed one of the first news taxonomies.
*In 1982, UPI is sold by Scripps to Douglas Ruhe and William Geissler for $1. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE6DE163FF937A15751C1A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print "U.P.I.: Look Back in Sorrow"] (book review of "Down to the Wire: UPI's Fight for Survival"),
The New York Times, December 24, 1989]
*In 1984, UPI descended into the first of two
Mario Vazquez Rañapurchases UPI out of bankruptcy.
*In 1988, UPI broke the "all or nothing" news service
traditionby introducing component products.
*In 1988, Vazquez Raña sells UPI to Infotechnology Inc.
*In 1993, UPI closed its bureaus and dismissed nearly all of its longtime employees, leaving them without pensions and medical benefits.
*In 1998, UPI sold its broadcast operations to AP Radio, which shut it down and converted clients to its own service.
*In 2000, UPI was acquired by the
*In 2005, UPI launched a direct-to-consumer
*In 2007, UPI launched "Ed" (Editorial Workshop System), a content management system to handle rich media content and distribution, and re-launched its Web site, www.upi.com.
*In 2008, UPI launched [http://www.upiu.com/ UPIU] , a multimedia journalistic forum for U.S. college and university students.
* [http://www.upi.com/ United Press International official website]
* [http://www.upiasiaonline.com/ United Press International Asia website]
* [http://www.downhold.org/lowry/ UPI's Trail of Tears]
* [http://www.downhold.org/lowry/history.html Origins and Early History of UPI]
* [http://www.audiocenter.com/downhold/index.htm Downhold Wire]
* [http://www.deadmicrophone.org/ Dead Microphone Club - UPI Radio Network]
* [http://www.thedownholdproject.info The Downhold Project]
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United Press International — United Press International, kurz UPI, ist eine Nachrichtenagentur in den USA. Sie ist 1958 aus United Press (UP) und International News Service (INS) hervorgegangen. UP war 1907 von Edward Willis Scripps gegründet worden, INS zwei Jahre später… … Deutsch Wikipedia
United Press International — (UPI ou United Press) est une agence de presse américaine. Elle a été, avec Associated Press, Reuters et l Agence France Presse, une des quatre principales agences de presse au monde avant de décliner dans les années 1990. Histoire La société a… … Wikipédia en Français
United Press International — [ju naɪtɪd pres ɪntə næʃnl; englisch], Nachrichtenagentur, UPI … Universal-Lexikon
United Press International — Sede de UPI en Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) es una agencia internacional de noticias con sede en Estados Unidos. Fue pionera en muchas áreas en la cobertura y distribución de noticias en todo el mundo. Fue fundada en 1907.… … Wikipedia Español
United Press International — … Википедия
United Press International — a business organization of newspapers in the U.S., together with representatives abroad, for the reporting and interchange of news. Abbr.: UPI, U.P.I. * * * ˌUnited ˌPress Interˈnational 7 [United Press International] noun (abbr. UPI) a US… … Useful english dictionary
United Press International — a business organization of newspapers in the U.S., together with representatives abroad, for the reporting and interchange of news. Abbr.: UPI, U.P.I. * * * ▪ American news agency American based news agency, one of the largest proprietary… … Universalium
United Press International — noun a private agency for the gathering and distributing of news. Abbrev.: UP, UPI Formerly, United Press … Australian English dictionary
United Press International — Uni|ted Prẹss In|ter|na|tio|nal [ ɪntɐ nɛʃənl̩ ], die; <englisch> (eine US amerikanische Nachrichtenagentur; Abkürzung UPI) … Die deutsche Rechtschreibung
United Press International Radio Network — United Press International (UPI) was the first wire service to start its own radio news network. In the early 1960s it began offering a 4 and a half minute newscast at the top of the hour. Unlike most commercial networks which pay local stations… … Wikipedia