Charles M. Schulz

Charles M. Schulz
Charles M. Schulz

Charles M. "Sparky" Schulz in 1956
Born Charles Monroe Schulz
November 26, 1922(1922-11-26)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Died February 12, 2000(2000-02-12) (aged 77)
Santa Rosa, California, USA
Nationality American
Area(s) Cartoonist, Writer, Artist
Notable works Peanuts (1950–2000)
Awards See this article's awards section
Official website

Charles Monroe "Sparky" Schulz (November 26, 1922 – February 12, 2000)[1] was an American cartoonist, whose comic strip Peanuts proved one of the most popular and influential in the history of the medium, and is still widely reprinted on a daily basis.

Contents

Early life and education

Born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Schulz grew up in Saint Paul. He was the only child of Carl Schulz, who was born in Germany, and Dena Halverson, who was Norwegian.[2] His uncle nicknamed him "Sparky" after the horse Spark Plug in the Barney Google comic strip.[3]

Schulz loved drawing and sometimes drew his family dog, Spike, who ate unusual things, such as pins and tacks. Schulz drew a picture of Spike and sent it to Ripley's Believe It or Not!; his drawing appeared in Robert Ripley's syndicated panel, captioned, "A hunting dog that eats pins, tacks and razor blades is owned by C. F. Schulz, St. Paul, Minn." and "Drawn by 'Sparky'"[4] (C.F. was his father, Carl Fred Schulz.)[5]

Schulz attended St. Paul's Richard Gordon Elementary School, where he skipped two half-grades. When he was in first grade, his mother helped him get valentines for everybody in his class, so that nobody would be offended by not getting one; but he felt too shy to put them in the box at the front of the classroom, so he took them all home again to his mother.[6]

He became a shy, timid teenager, perhaps as a result of being the youngest in his class at Central High School. One episode in his high school life was the rejection of his drawings by his high school yearbook. Much to its irony, a statue of Snoopy was placed in Central's main office sixty years later.[6]

Military service

In 1943, he was drafted into the United States Army and served as a sergeant with the 20th Armored Division in Europe as a squad leader on a .50 caliber machine gun team. The unit saw combat only at the very end of the war. Schulz stated that he only ever had one opportunity to fire his machine gun, but forgot to load it. Fortunately, he said, the German soldier he ran into willingly surrendered. Years later, he proudly spoke of his wartime service.[7]

After discharge in late 1945, he returned to Minneapolis where he took a job as an art teacher at Art Instruction, Inc. — he had taken correspondence courses before he was drafted. Before having his comics published, Schulz did lettering for a Roman Catholic comic magazine, Timeless Topix, while still teaching at Art Instruction.

Career as cartoonist

Schulz's first regular cartoons, Li'l Folks, were published from 1947 to 1950 by the St. Paul Pioneer Press; he first used the name Charlie Brown for a character there, although he applied the name in four gags to three different boys and one buried in sand. The series also had a dog that looked much like Snoopy. In 1948, Schulz sold a cartoon to The Saturday Evening Post; the first of 17 single-panel cartoons by Schulz that would be published there. In 1948, Schulz tried to have Li'l Folks syndicated through the Newspaper Enterprise Association. Schulz would have been an independent contractor for the syndicate, unheard of in the 1940s, but the deal fell through. Li'l Folks was dropped from the Pioneer Press in January, 1950.

Later that year, Schulz approached the United Feature Syndicate with his best strips from Li'l Folks, and Peanuts made its first appearance on October 2, 1950. The strip became one of the most popular comic strips of all time. He also had a short-lived sports-oriented comic strip called It's Only a Game (1957–1959), but he abandoned it due to the demands of the successful Peanuts. From 1956 to 1965 he contributed a single-panel strip ("Young Pillars") featuring teenagers to Youth, a publication associated with the Church of God.

In 1957 and 1961 he illustrated two volumes of Art Linkletter's Kids Say the Darndest Things,[8][9] and in 1964 a collection of letters, Dear President Johnson, by Bill Adler.[10]

Schulz receiving his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at Knott's Berry Farm in June 1996

Charlie Brown, the principal character for Peanuts, was named after a co-worker at the Art Instruction School; Schulz drew much more inspiration from his own life:

  • Like Charlie Brown's parents, Schulz's father was a barber and his mother a housewife.
  • Schulz and Charlie Brown were shy and withdrawn.
  • Schulz had a dog when he was a boy, although unlike Snoopy the beagle, it was a pointer.
  • References to Snoopy's brother Spike living outside of Needles, California were likely influenced by the few years (1928–1930) that the Schulz family lived there; they had moved to Needles to join other family members who had relocated from Minnesota to tend to an ill cousin.[11]
  • Schulz's "Little Red-Haired Girl" was Donna Mae Johnson, an Art Instruction Schools accountant with whom he fell in love. When Schulz proposed to her, she turned him down and married another man.
  • Linus and Shermy were both named for good friends of his (Linus Maurer and Sherman Plepler, respectively).
  • Peppermint Patty was inspired by Patricia Swanson, one of his cousins on his mother's side.The name came from the candy "Peppermint Patty's."[12]

Influences

The Charles M. Schulz Museum counts Milton Caniff (Terry and the Pirates) and Bill Mauldin as key influences on Schulz's work. In his own strip, Schulz regularly described Snoopy's annual Veterans Day visits with Mauldin, including mention of Mauldin's World War II cartoons.[13][14]

Critics have also credited George Herriman (Krazy Kat), Roy Crane (Wash Tubbs), Elzie C. Segar (Thimble Theater) and Percy Crosby (Skippy) among Schulz's influences. However,

It would be impossible to narrow down three or two or even one direct influence on [Schulz's] personal drawing style. The uniqueness of Peanuts has set it apart for years... That one-of-kind quality permeates every aspect of the strip and very clearly extends to the drawing. It is purely his with no clear forerunners and no subsequent pretenders.
Good Grief: The Story of Charles M. Schulz, Rheta Grimsley Johnson, p. 68

Personal life

In 1951, Schulz moved to Colorado Springs, Colorado. The same year, Schulz married Joyce Halverson.[15] His son, Monte, was born at this time, with their three further children being born later, in Minnesota.[16] He painted a wall in that home for his adopted daughter Meredith Hodges, featuring Patty, Charlie Brown and Snoopy. The wall was removed in 2001 and donated to the Charles M. Schulz Museum in Santa Rosa, California.

Schulz and his family returned to Minneapolis and stayed until 1958. They then moved to Sebastopol, California, where Schulz built his first studio. It was here that Schulz was interviewed for the unaired television documentary A Boy Named Charlie Brown. Some of the footage was eventually used in a later documentary, Charlie Brown and Charles Schulz. The original documentary is available on DVD from the Charles M. Schulz Museum.

Schulz's father died while visiting him in 1966, the same year his Sebastopol studio burned down. By 1969, Schulz had moved to Santa Rosa, California, where he lived and worked until his death.

By Thanksgiving 1970, it was clear that Schulz's first marriage was in trouble,[17] and their divorce was final in 1972. Schulz married Jean Forsyth Clyde in 1973; they met when Jean brought her daughter to Schulz's hockey rink.[17]

Charles M. Schulz Highland Arena on Snelling Avenue and Ford Parkway in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Schulz had a long association with ice sports, and both figure skating and ice hockey featured prominently in his cartoons. In Santa Rosa, he was the owner of the Redwood Empire Ice Arena, which opened in 1969 and featured a snack bar called "The Warm Puppy".[6] Schulz's daughter Amy served as a model for the figure skating in the 1980 television special She's a Good Skate, Charlie Brown.

Schulz also was very active in senior ice-hockey tournaments; in 1975, he formed Snoopy's Senior World Hockey Tournament at his Redwood Empire Ice Arena, and in 1981, Schulz was awarded the Lester Patrick Trophy for outstanding service to the sport of hockey in the United States.

Schulz also enjoyed playing golf and was a member of the Santa Rosa Golf and Country Club from 1959 to 2000.

In 1982, Schulz suffered a heart attack. During his hospital stay, President Reagan called him on the phone to wish him a quick recovery.

Schulz in 1993.

On Sunday, May 8, 1988, two gunmen wearing ski masks entered the cartoonist's home through an unlocked door, planning to kidnap Jean Schulz, but the attempt failed when the couple's daughter, Jill, drove up to the house, prompting the would-be kidnappers to flee. She saw what was happening and called the police from a neighbor's house. Sonoma County Sheriff Dick Michaelsen said, "It was obviously an attempted kidnap-ransom. This was a targeted criminal act. They knew exactly who the victims were." Neither Schulz nor his wife were hurt during the incident.[18][19]

In 1998, Schulz hosted the first Over 75 Hockey Tournament. In 2001, Saint Paul renamed the Highland Park Ice Arena the Charles M. Schulz Highland Arena in his honor.

Biographies

Biographies have been written about Schulz, including Rheta Grimsley Johnson's Good Grief: The Story of Charles M. Schulz (1989), which was authorized by Schulz.

The lengthiest biography, Schulz and Peanuts: A Biography by David Michaelis (2007), has been heavily criticized by the Schulz family, with son Monte stating it has "a number of factual errors throughout ... [including] factual errors of interpretation" and extensively documenting these errors in a number of essays; for his part, Michaelis maintains that there is "no question" his work is accurate.[20][21] Although cartoonist Bill Watterson (creator of Calvin & Hobbes) feels that the biography does justice to Schulz's legacy, while giving insight into the emotional impetus of the creation of the strips, cartoonist and critic R.C. Harvey regards the book as falling short both in describing Schulz as a cartoonist and in fulfilling Michaelis' stated aim of "understanding how Charles Schulz knew the world", feeling the biography bends the facts to a thesis rather than evoking a thesis from the facts.[22][23][24] A review of Michaelis' biography by Dan Shanahan in the American Book Review (vol 29, no. 6) faults the biography not for factual errors, but for "a predisposition" to finding problems in Schulz's life to explain his art, regardless of how little the material lends itself to Michaelis' interpretations. Shanahan cites, in particular, such things as Michaelis' crude characterizations of Schulz's mother's family, and "an almost voyeuristic quality" to the hundred pages devoted to the breakup of Schulz's first marriage.

In light of David Michaelis' biography and the controversy surrounding his interpretation of the personality that was Charles Schulz, responses from his family reveal some intimate knowledge about the Schulz's persona beyond that of mere artist.[25]

Death

Charles Schulz's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Peanuts ran for nearly 50 years, almost without interruption. During the life of the strip, Schulz took only one vacation, a five-week break in late 1997 to celebrate his 75th birthday; reruns of the strip ran during his vacation. At its peak, Peanuts appeared in more than 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries. Schulz stated that his routine every morning consisted of eating a jelly donut and sitting down to write the day's strip. After coming up with an idea (which he said could take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours), he began drawing it, which took about an hour for dailies and three hours for Sunday strips. He stubbornly refused to hire an inker or letterer, saying that "it would be equivalent to a golfer hiring a man to make his putts for him." In November 1999 Schulz suffered several small strokes along with a blocked aorta and later it was discovered that he had colon cancer that had metastasized. Because of the chemotherapy and the fact he could not read or see clearly, he announced his retirement on December 14, 1999. This was difficult for Schulz, and he was quoted as saying to Al Roker on The Today Show, "I never dreamed that this would happen to me. I always had the feeling that I would stay with the strip until I was in my early eighties, or something like that. But all of sudden it's gone. I did not take it away. This has been taken away from me."[cite this quote] In his later years, Schulz also suffered from Parkinson's Disease. As a result, he experienced hand tremors that made his linework shaky. He admitted that the tremors sometimes were so bad that while working, he had to hold onto the side of his desk with one hand to steady himself. In addition, he had to reduce the strip from four panels to three (starting on February 29, 1988) to reduce the amount of drawing.

Charles Schulz died in his sleep at home around 9:45 p.m. on February 12, 2000. Although he was dying of cancer, he suffered a fatal heart attack. The last original Peanuts strip was published the very next day, on Sunday, February 13, 2000, just hours after his death the night before. Schulz was buried at Pleasant Hills Cemetery in Sebastopol, California.[26]

Schulz indicated that his family wished for the strip to end when he was no longer able to produce it. Schulz had previously predicted that the strip would outlive him, with his reason being that comic strips are usually drawn weeks before their publication. As part of his will, Schulz had requested that the Peanuts characters remain as authentic as possible and that no new comic strips based on them be drawn. United Features had legal ownership of the strip, but honored his wishes, instead syndicating reruns of the strip to newspapers. New television specials have also been produced since Schulz's death, but the stories are based on previous strips, and Schulz always stated that Peanuts TV shows were entirely separate from the strip.

Schulz had been asked if, for his final Peanuts strip, Charlie Brown would finally get to kick that football after so many decades. His response: "Oh, no! Definitely not! I couldn't have Charlie Brown kick that football; that would be a terrible disservice to him after nearly half a century." Yet, in a December 1999 interview, holding back tears, he recounted the moment when he signed the panel of his final strip, saying, “All of a sudden I thought, 'You know, that poor, poor kid, he never even got to kick the football. What a dirty trick — he never had a chance to kick the football!'”[17][27]

He was posthumously honored on May 27, 2000, by cartoonists of more than 100 comic strips paying homage to him and Peanuts.[28][29]

Awards

Charles M. Schulz Congressional Gold Medal

Schulz received the National Cartoonists Society's Humor Comic Strip Award in 1962 for Peanuts, the Society's Elzie Segar Award in 1980, and was also the first ever two-time winner of their Reuben Award for 1955 and 1964, and their Milton Caniff Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999.[30] He was also an avid hockey fan; in 1981, Schulz was awarded the Lester Patrick Trophy for outstanding contributions to the sport of hockey in the United States, and he was inducted into the United States Hockey Hall of Fame in 1993.[31] On June 28, 1996, Schulz was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, adjacent to Walt Disney's.[32] A replica of this star appears outside his former studio in Santa Rosa. Schulz is a recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest adult award given by the Boy Scouts of America, for his service to American youth.[33]

A proponent of manned space flight, Schulz was honored with the naming of Apollo 10 command module Charlie Brown, and lunar module Snoopy, launched on May 18, 1969.

On January 1, 1974, Schulz served as the Grand Marshal of the Rose Parade in Pasadena, California.

On February 10, 2000, Congressman Mike Thompson introduced H.R. 3642, a bill to award Schulz the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor the United States legislature can bestow.[34] The bill passed the House (with only Ron Paul voting no and 24 not voting)[35] on February 15, and the bill was sent to the Senate where it passed unanimously on May 2.[36] The Senate also considered a bill S.2060 (introduced by Diane Feinstein).[37] President Bill Clinton signed the bill into law on June 20, 2000. On June 7, 2001, Schulz's widow Jean accepted the award on behalf of her late husband in a public ceremony.[38]

Schulz was inducted into the United States Figure Skating Hall of Fame in 2007.[39]

Legacy

When the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota opened in 1992, the Amusement Park in the center of the Mall was themed around Schulz' "Peanuts" characters, until the Mall lost the rights to use the branding in 2006.

In 2000, the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors rechristened the Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport in his honor. The airport's logo features Snoopy in goggles and scarf, taking to the skies on top of his red doghouse.

The Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center in Santa Rosa opened on August 17, 2002, two blocks away from his former studio and celebrates his life's work and art of cartooning. A bronze statue of Charlie Brown and Snoopy stands in Depot Park in downtown Santa Rosa.

The Jean and Charles Schulz Information Center at Sonoma State University is one of the largest libraries in the CSU system and the state of California, with a 400,000-volume general collection and with a 750,000-volume automated retrieval system capacity. The $41.5 million building was named after Schulz, and his wife donated $5 million needed to build and furnish the structure. The library opened in 2000 and now stands as one of the largest buildings in the university.

Peanuts on Parade has been St. Paul, Minnesota’s tribute to its favorite native cartoonist. It began in 2000 with the placing of 101 5-foot-tall (1.5 m) statues of Snoopy throughout the city of St. Paul. Every summer for the next four years, statues of a different Peanuts character were placed on the sidewalks of St. Paul. In 2001, there was Charlie Brown Around Town, 2002 brought Looking for Lucy, then in 2003 along came Linus Blankets St. Paul, ending in 2004 with Snoopy lying on his doghouse. The statues were auctioned off at the end of each summer, so some remain around the city, but others have been relocated. The auction proceeds were used for artists' scholarships and for permanent, bronze statues of the Peanuts characters. These bronze statues are in Landmark Plaza and Rice Park in downtown St. Paul. Santa Rosa, CA celebrated the 60th anniversary of the strip in 2005 by continuing the Peanuts on Parade tradition beginning with It's Your Town Charlie Brown (2005), Summer of Woodstock (2006), Snoopys Joe Cool Summer (2007) & Look Out For Lucy (2008)

In 2006, Forbes ranked Schulz as the third highest-earning deceased celebrity, having earned $35 million in the previous year.[40] In 2009, he was ranked 6th.[41] According to Tod Benoit in his book Where Are They Buried? How Did They Die?, Charles M. Schulz's income during his lifetime totaled more than $1.1 billion.[42]

Religion

Schulz often touched on religious themes in his work, including the classic television cartoon, A Charlie Brown Christmas (1965), which features the character Linus van Pelt quoting the King James Version of the Bible Luke 2:8-14 to explain "what Christmas is all about." In personal interviews Schulz mentioned that Linus represented his spiritual side.

Schulz, reared in the Lutheran faith, had been active in the Church of God as a young adult and then later taught Sunday school at a United Methodist Church. In the 1960s, Robert L. Short interpreted certain themes and conversations in Peanuts as being consistent with parts of Christian theology, and used them as illustrations during his lectures about the gospel, as he explained in his bestselling paperback book, The Gospel According to Peanuts, the first of several books he wrote on religion and Peanuts, and other popular culture items.

From the late 1980s, however, Schulz described himself in interviews as a "secular humanist":[43]

I do not go to church anymore... I guess you might say I've come around to secular humanism, an obligation I believe all humans have to others and the world we live in.[44]

In the same interview, Schulz also acknowledged that he was not exactly sure what a secular humanist is.

Notes

  1. ^ Boxer, Sarah (2000-02-14). Charles M. Schulz, 'Peanuts' Creator, Dies at 77. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/library/arts/021400obit-c-schulz.html. Retrieved 2008-10-01 
  2. ^ New Yorker Fact: Growing up with Charley Brown
  3. ^ Groth, Gary (July 2007). "Charles M. Schulz - 1922 to 2000". The Complete Peanuts 1965–1966. Fantagraphic Books. pp. 322. ISBN 9781560977247. 
  4. ^ Mendelson, Lee (1970). Charlie Brown & Charlie Schulz. The World Publishing Company. 
  5. ^ Michaelis 2007, p. 9
  6. ^ a b c "Oh boy, Charlie Brown". The Guardian. October 11, 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/oct/11/peanuts-matt-groening-jonathan-franzen. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  7. ^ Michaelis 2007, pp. 150–151
  8. ^ "Kids say the darndest things!". Worldcat. http://www.worldcat.org/title/kids-say-the-darndest-things/oclc/336428. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "Kids still say the darndest things!". Worldcat. http://www.worldcat.org/title/kids-still-say-the-darndest-things/oclc/11396008?tab=details. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  10. ^ "Dear President Johnson". Worldcat. http://www.worldcat.org/title/dear-president-johnson/oclc/1383960. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  11. ^ Johnson, Rheta Grimsley (1989). Good Grief: The Story of Charles M. Schulz. Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 30–36. ISBN 0-8362-8097-0. 
  12. ^ Michaelis 2007, p. 335
  13. ^ "The Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center". Charles M. Schulz Museum. http://www.charlesmschulzmuseum.org/flyers/CMSM%20Map%20200807.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-09. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Peanuts by Schulz". Comics.com. http://comics.com/peanuts/. "November 11th strips from 1969–70, '76, '79–81, '83, '85–89, '91–93, '96–99" 
  15. ^ Schulz & Peanuts Time Line. Charles M. Schulz Museum. http://www.schulzmuseum.org/timeline.html. Retrieved 2009-01-16 
  16. ^ Inge, M. Thomas (2000). Charles M. Schulz: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi. p. 32. ISBN 1578063051. 
  17. ^ a b c "Good Ol' Charles Schulz". American Masters. PBS. October 29th, 2007.
  18. ^ "Cartoonist's Home Invaded in Apparent Kidnap Attempt". San Jose Mercury News, May 13, 1988.
  19. ^ "Good grief, it's a kidnap attempt". Toledo Blade, May 13, 1988.
  20. ^ Schulz, Monte (May 2008). "Regarding Schulz and Peanuts". The Comics Journal (290): 27–78. ISSN 0194-7869.  Excerpt available: Schulz, Monte; Gary Groth (May 18, 2008). "The Comics Journal — The Schulz and Peanuts Roundtable (excerpts from TCJ #290)". The Comics Journal. Fantagraphics. http://www.tcj.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=837&Itemid=48. Retrieved 2008-07-28.  Archived on July 28, 2008.
  21. ^ Cohen, Patricia (October 8, 2007). "Biography of ‘Peanuts’ Creator Stirs Family". The New York Times (The New York Times). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/08/books/08schu.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-10-08 
  22. ^ Watterson, Bill (October 12, 2007). "The Grief That Made 'Peanuts' Good". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB119214690326956694.html?mod=djm_HAWSJSB_Welcome. Retrieved 2007-10-16 
  23. ^ Harvey, R.C. (May 2008). "The Pagliacci Bit". The Comics Journal (290): 79–92. ISSN 0194-7869. 
  24. ^ Harvey, R.C. (May 2008). "Schulz Roundtable Round Two". The Comics Journal (290): 101–105. ISSN 0194-7869.  Excerpt available: Harvey, R.C. (May 18, 2008). "The Comics Journal — Schulz Roundtable Round Two (excerpt from TCJ #290)". The Comics Journal. Fantagraphics. http://www.tcj.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=836&Itemid=48. Retrieved 2008-07-28.  Archived on July 28, 2008.
  25. ^ Amidi, Amid (October 13, 2007). "Cartoon Brew: Leading the Animation Conversation " More on the Schulz Book". Cartoon Brew. http://www.cartoonbrew.com/books/more-on-the-schulz-book#comment-34417. Retrieved 2008-07-28.  Archived on July 28, 2008.
  26. ^ Charles Monroe Schulz at Find a Grave
  27. ^ Schulz, Charles (December 1999). Interview with Al Roker. 
  28. ^ Peanuts Faq, section 3.6, Derrick Bang
  29. ^ "Cartoonists pay tribute to Charles M. Schulz and Peanuts". http://www.chivian.com/chivian/PeanutsTribute.html. 
  30. ^ Sulkis, Brian (2005-02-11). Cartoonist's characters spread a gentle message. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/02/11/WBG0VB7IFI1.DTL&type=printable. Retrieved 2008-11-11 
  31. ^ Apple, Chris (2002-01-05). Resolutions for 2002. Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/statitudes/news/2002/01/04/just_stats/. Retrieved 2008-11-11 
  32. ^ Whiting, Sam (1999-12-15). The Peanuts Gallery Is Closed. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1999/12/15/DD35372.DTL&type=printable. Retrieved 2008-11-11 
  33. ^ Scouting.org
  34. ^ Thomas.loc.gov
  35. ^ "106th Congress, 2nd session, House vote 19". The Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/106/house/2/votes/19/. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  36. ^ Thomas.loc.gov
  37. ^ Thomas.loc.gov
  38. ^ Charles M. Schulz Honored with Congressional Gold Medal
  39. ^ Rosewater, Amy (2007-01-29). Skating survived just fine without Kwan, Cohen. ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/print?id=2747202&type=story. Retrieved 2008-11-11 
  40. ^ Charles M. Schulz. Forbes. 2006-10-20. http://www.forbes.com/2006/10/20/tech-media_06deadcelebs_cx_pf_top-earning-dead-celebrities_3.html. Retrieved 2009-01-19 
  41. ^ Miller, Matthew (October 27, 2009). "Top-Earning Dead Celebrities 2009". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2009/10/27/top-earning-dead-celebrities-list-dead-celebs-09-entertainment_land.html?boxes=listschannelinsidelists. 
  42. ^ Benoit, Tod (2003). Where are They Buried? How Did They Die?: Fitting Ends and Final Resting Places of the Famous, Infamous, and Noteworthy. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 1579122876. 
  43. ^ Templeton, David. My Lunch with Sparky, reproduced from the December 30, 1999–January 5, 2000 issue of the Sonoma County Independent. Archived November 28, 2008.
  44. ^ Johnson (1989), p. 137.

References

Primary sources
  • Schulz, Charles M. (1980) Charlie Brown, Snoopy, and Me. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company ISBN 0-385-15805-X
    • My Life With Charlie Brown by Charles M. Schulz, edited by M. Thomas Inge (University Press of Mississippi; 2010) 193 pages
    • Around the World in 45 Years. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel/United Features Syndicate, 1994.
    • Go Fly a Kite, Charlie Brown. 1959. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    • Peanuts: A Golden Celebration: The Art and the Story of the World's Best-Loved Comic Strip Ed. David Larkin. New York: HarperCollins, 1999.
  • Inge, M. Thomas (ed.) (2000). Charles M. Schulz: Conversations. Jackson, MS: Univ. Press of Mississippi ISBN 1-57806-305-1
Secondary studies
  • Bang, Derrick. 50 Years of Happiness: A Tribute to Charles M. Schulz. (1999) Santa Rosa, California: Charles M. Schulz Museum. ISBN 0-9685574-0-6
  • Bang, Derrick (ed.) (2003) Charles M. Schulz: Li'l Beginnings. Santa Rosa, Charles M. Schulz Museum. ISBN 0-9745709-1-5
  • Caron, James E. "Everybody Deserves a Security Blanket," Studies in American Humor, 2008, Issue 17, pp 145–155
  • DeLuca, Geraldine. "'I Felt a Funeral in My Brain': The Fragile Comedy of Charles Schulz," The Lion and the Unicorn v.25#2 (2001) 300-309
  • Johnson, Rheta Grimsley (1989). Good Grief: the story of Charles M. Schulz. New York: Pharos Books. ISBN 0886875536 
  • Kidd, Chip (ed.) (2001) Peanuts: the art of Charles M. Schulz. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42097-5
  • Michaelis, David (2007). Schulz and Peanuts: a biography. New York: Harper. ISBN 0066213932 
  • Short, Robert L. The Gospel according to Peanuts Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1964.

External links


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