- Edward Adrian Wilson
name = Edward Adrian Wilson
image_size = 180px
caption = Edward Adrian Wilson
birth_date = birth date|1872|7|23|df=yes
birth_place = Montpellier Terrace,
death_date = dda|1912|3|29|1872|7|23|df=yes
children = Dr. Edward Adrian Wilson ("Uncle Bill") (
23 July 1872– 29 March 1912) was a notable English polar explorer, physician, naturalist, painter and ornithologist.
Born in Montpellier Terrace,
Cheltenhamon 23 July 1872, he was the second son and fifth child of physicianDr. Edward Thomas Wilson (1832-1918) and his wife, Mary Agnes, née Whishaw (1841-1930). A clever, sensitive, but boisterous boy, he developed a love of the countryside, natural history and drawing from an early age. He was sent as a boarder to a Preparatory School in Clifton, Bristol, but after failing to gain a scholarshipto Public School, he attended Cheltenham Collegefor Boys as a day pupil. His mother was a poultry breeder and he spent much of his youth at "The Crippetts" farm, Leckhamptonnear Cheltenham. By the age of nine he had announced to his parents that he was going to become a naturalist. With encouragement and tuition from his father, he started to draw pictures of the wildlife and fauna in the fields around the farm. After passing his Oxfordand Cambridgeexams with honours in Science, in 1891 he went to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridgewhere he read Natural Sciences, obtaining a first class degree in 1894. It was during his time there that he developed the deep Christianfaith and asceticismby which he lived his life. He studied for his Bachelor of Medicine(M.B.) degree at St George's Hospital Medical School, London and undertook mission work in the slums of Batterseain his spare time. In February 1898, shortly before qualifying as a doctor, Wilson became seriously ill with Pulmonary tuberculosiscontracted during his mission work. During a long convalescence from this illness he spent months in Norway and Switzerland, time he used to practice and develop his skills as an artist. He qualified in medicine in 1900 and the next year was appointed Junior House Surgeon at Cheltenham General Hospital. He married Oriana Souper on 16 July 1901 just three weeks before setting off for the Antarctic as a member of Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery Expedition.
Wilson took part in two British expeditions to
Antarctica, the British National Antarctic Expedition ( Discovery Expedition) and the Terra Nova Expedition, both under the leadership of Scott. On the first, from 1901 to 1904, Wilson acted as Junior Surgeon and Zoologist, setting off with the expedition on 6 August, 1901. During this expedition, Wilson joined Scott and Ernest Shackletonin a journey that, at the time, was the southern-most trek achieved by any explorer, taking them to a latitude of 82°17'S, approximately 500 miles from the Pole. On his return, Shackleton asked Wilson to join his Nimrod expeditionto Antarctica in 1907, but partly out of loyalty to Scott, he declined.
Terra Nova Expedition
On 15th June 1910, Wilson set sail from Cardiff on the "Terra Nova", as Chief of the Scientific Staff of Scott's final expedition. After making stops in Madeira, South Trinidad, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, the Terra Nova was trapped for 3 weeks by pack ice, and finally arrived at
Cape Evansin McMurdo Soundin early January 1911. A base camp hut was built and 3 weeks later work began to establish the supply depots in preparation for the journey to the South Polethe following austral Spring. Deteriorating weather conditions and weak, unacclimatised ponies meant that the main supply point, One Ton Depot, was laid 35 miles (56 km) further north of its planned location at 80°S, something that was to prove critical during the return journey from the Pole the following year.
In the austral winter of 1911, Wilson led "The Winter Journey", a journey with
Henry Robertson Bowersand Apsley Cherry-Garrard, to the Emperor penguinbreeding grounds at Cape Crozierto collect eggs for scientific study. The 60 mile journey was made in almost total darkness, with temperatures reaching as low as −70 °F (−56.7 °C). Frozen and exhausted, they reached their goal only to be stopped by a blizzard during which their tent was ripped away and carried off by the wind, leaving the men trapped in their sleeping bags for a day and a half under a thickening drift of snow. When the winds subsided, by great fortune they found their tent lodged about half a mile away in rocks. Having successfully collected three eggs and desperately exhausted they returned to Cape Evans on 1st August 1911, five weeks after setting off. Cherry-Garrard later described this expedition in his memoir, " The Worst Journey in the World".
On 1st November 1911, 14 men set off from Cape Evans on the long trip to the South Pole. 79 days later, Wilson was one of the five-man Polar party that reached the Pole on
18 January 1912, only to find the pole had been claimed by Norwegian Roald Amundsenand his team just 5 weeks earlier.
Their return journey soon became a desperate affair mainly due to the exceptionally adverse weather. On 17th February, near the base of the
Beardmore glacier, Petty Officer Edgar Evansdied, suspected to be from a brain injury sustained after a fall into a crevassetwo weeks earlier. Then, in a vain attempt to save his companions, Captain Lawrence Oatesdeliberately walked out of their tent to his death on 16 March after succumbing to the effects of terribly frostbitten and gangrenous feet. Wilson, Scott and Bowers continued on for 3 more days, progressing 20 more miles, but were stopped 11 miles short of the 'One Ton' food depot that could save them by a blizzard on 20 March. The blizzard continued for days, longer than they had fuel and food for. Too weak, cold and hungry to continue, they died in their tent on or soon after 29 March (Scott's last diary entry), still 148 miles from their base camp. Their bodies were found by a search party the following spring on 12 November 1912. Their tent was collapsed over them by the search party who then buried them where they lay, under a snow cairn, topped by a cross made from a pair of skis. When news of the tragedy reached Britain in February 1913, it created a national mourning the like of which has rarely been seen since.
Affectionately nicknamed 'Uncle Bill' by the men of the expedition, he was the confidante of many, respected for his judgement, mediatory skills and dedication to others. By all accounts, Wilson was probably Scott's closest comrade of the expedition. Scott wrote "Words must always fail me when I talk of Bill Wilson. I believe he really is the finest character I ever met." When Scott's final camp was discovered by a search team in November 1912, Bowers and Wilson were found frozen in their sleeping bags. Scott's bag was open and his body partially out of his bag - his left arm was extended around Wilson.
At Gonville and Caius College the college's flag which Wilson took to the
South Poleis preserved.
His statue on the Promenade in
Cheltenham, modelled by Scott's widow Kathleen, was unveiled on 9 July 1914 by Arctic explorer Sir Clements Markham. There is a small standing exhibition commemorating him in the town's museum.
The Edward Wilson primary school in
Paddington, Londonis named after him.
The students' cafe at St George's Medical School (
SGUL) is named Eddie Wilson's.
List of Antarctica expeditions
* [http://www.cheltenhammuseum.org.uk/search/img.asp?Url=2/1995-550.jpgPortrait of Edward Wilson] in the Cheltenham Town Museum
* [http://www.edwardawilson.com Biography of Edward Wilson] with a good number of his paintings and drawings
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Edward Adrian Wilson — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edward A. Wilson Edward Adrian Wilson (apodado Uncle Bill , Tío Bill) (23 de julio de 1872 – 29 de marzo de 1912) fue un explorador polar inglés, médico, naturalista y ornitólogo … Wikipedia Español
Edward Adrian Wilson — Edward A. Wilson Edward Adrian Wilson (* 23. Juli 1872 bei Cheltenham; † 29. März 1912, Ross Schelfeis, Antarktis) war ein englischer Polarforscher, Arzt und Ornithologe. Geboren und aufgewachsen auf der Crippetts Farm nahe Cheltenham … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edward Adrian Wilson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Edward Wilson. Edward Adrian Wilson Edward Adrian Wilson, surnommé « Oncle Bill », (23 juillet 187 … Wikipédia en Français
Wilson (Familienname) — Wilson ist ein englischer Familienname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der Name bedeutet Sohn des Wil. Somit handelt es sich um einen patronymisch gebildeten Namen. Verbreitung 1990 war Wilson in den USA der achthäufigste Familienname. Varianten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edward Wilson — may refer to:*Edward Adrian Wilson (1872–1912), English Antarctic explorer *Edward Osborne Wilson (b. 1929), American entomologist and biologist *Edward Wilson (clergyman), a clergyman and the founder of Wilson s School, originally in Camberwell… … Wikipedia
Edward Wilson — ist der Name folgender Personen: Edward Adrian Wilson (1872–1912), britischer Polarforscher, Arzt und Ornithologe Edward Osborne Wilson (* 1929), amerikanischer Entomologe und Biologe Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edward L. Atkinson — Edward Atkinson Edward Leicester Atkinson, né en 1881 et mort en 1929, était un chirurgien de la Royal Navy et un explorateur de l Antarctique qui fut un membre de l équipe scientifique de l expédition Terra Nova (1910 1913) de Robert Falcon… … Wikipédia en Français
Edward L Atkinson — Edward Atkinson Edward Leicester Atkinson, né en 1881 et mort en 1929, était un chirurgien de la Royal Navy et un explorateur de l Antarctique qui fut un membre de l équipe scientifique de l expédition Terra Nova (1910 1913) de Robert Falcon… … Wikipédia en Français
Edward Atkinson — Edward Leicester Atkinson, né le 23 novembre 1881 et mort le 20 février 1929, était un chirurgien de la Royal Navy et un explorateur de l Antarctique qui fut un membre de l équipe scientifique de l expédition Terra Nova (1910 1913) de Robert… … Wikipédia en Français
Wilson — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Étymologie historique 2 Patronyme 3 … Wikipédia en Français