Ilam, Iran


Ilam, Iran

Infobox City
official_name = Ilam
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province_name = Ilam Province
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population_total = 166478
population_as_of = 2005
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timezone = IRST
utc_offset = +3:30
timezone_DST = "not observed"
utc_offset_DST = +3:30
latd = 33 | latm = 38 | lats = | latNS = N
longd = 46 | longm = 26 | longs = | longEW = E
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Ilam ( Elam in Kurdish) is the capital of Ilam Province in western Iran. The Kabir Kuh mountain range lies nearby. From the west it borders Iraq.

It had an estimated population of 168,478 in 2005 [http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/2005_world_city_populations/Iran.html] and is predominantly inhabited by Feyli Kurds.

(J Kodakarami 2008) Ilam is situated in the cold mountainous region of Iran at a height of 1319 m above the mean sea level. It is located in the west of Iran at a latitude of 33º 38´ north and longitude of 46º 26´ east. Although this city is surrounded by mountains, its climate is also affected by deserts from the west and the south. Figure 2 presents the geographical conditions of Ilam.This region presents a highly variable annual weather profile. Heavy showers or heavy snow in the winter and dusty, hot, dry weather in the summer are normal for this region. [J Khodakarami and I Knight. "Required and Current Thermal Conditions for Occupants in Iranian Hospitals". HVAC&R Research, Vol. 14, Number 2, March 2008, pp 175-194]

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Colleges and Universities

Ilam contains the following universities:
* Ilam University of Medical Sciences
* [http://www.ilam.ac.ir/ University of Ilam]
* Islamic Azad University of Ilam

The Architecture of Ilam ("A Climatic Approach")

Like many other regions of Iran the architecture in Ilam includes traditional and contemporary periods. Although easy access to fossil fuels and electricity may have aided the transition in Iranian architecture in other regions of Iran from its’ traditional to modern styles, in Ilam the increasing population has also played a role. The two separate periods of architecture in this city are presented in the following sections. [J Khodakarami. "Achieving Thermal Comfort in Iranian Hospitals". Cardiff University, PhD Thesis, 2008]

Notes

Traditional period

Ilam is a part of the region which created the Elamite Civilization as one of the earliest civilizations. Based on archaeological discoveries, this city was an active centre for different periods of Iranian civilization. In term of architecture there are some historical sites and some dispersed ruined buildings that give evidence of civilizations in this region. However, in terms of buildings that could lead to some typological studies, except for some castles and shrines, there is no reasonable evidence.The considerable buildings that could be used to study climatic design aspects are mostly referred to the last few centuries. The surviving buildings generally belonged to the upper levels of society and they may not assume to be a general type for the traditional residential buildings of general people. The settlements of people were built by cheaper materials therefore only weak evidences of these types of settlements are visible today.The Governor Castle, Falahaty Mansion and The Mirgholam Castle are examples of some surviving traditional buildings in Ilam. The courtyard dwelling is the main type of the buildings of this period. This type of building was accepted as the main building type over all Iran for both climatic and cultural reasons. Brick is the main constructional material in these buildings. The "passive thermal techniques" indicated for the Iranian traditional buildings are commonly used in these buildings. The Governor Castle of Ilam was built in type of courtyard. Adding shade and moisture by using green landscape, high trees and a pound, were the main passive techniques used in this building to reduce the temperature in summer. The Mirgholam Castle of Ilam presents a classic Iranian courtyard. The garden and the pound were the main elements of this type of buildings. The Falahaty Mansion used a pitched roof as it was regular beside the flat roofs in the traditional buildings in Ilam earlier. [J Khodakarami. "Achieving Thermal Comfort in Iranian Hospitals". Cardiff University, PhD Thesis, 2008]

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