- Papa Stour
Infobox Scottish island
norse name= Papey Stóra
meaning of name= Norse for 'big island of the "
highest elevation= Virda Field 87 m
island group= Shetland
local authority=Shetland Islands
references= [General Register Office for Scotland (28 Nov 2003) " [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/publications-and-data/occpapers/occasional-paper-10.html Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands] "] [Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) "Orkneyinga Saga". Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint). ISBN 0-901824-25-9] cite web|url=http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/|title=Ordnance Survey]
Papa Stour is one of the
Shetland Islandsin Scotland, with a population of over twenty people, some of whom immigrated after an appeal for residents in the 1970s. Located to the west of mainland Shetland and with an area of 828 hectares (3.2 square miles), Papa Stour is the eighth largest island in the Shetlands. Erosion of the soft volcanic rocks by the sea has created an extraordinary variety of caves, stacks, arches, blowholes, and cliffs.Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004) "The Scottish Islands". Edinburgh. Canongate. Pages 449-452.] The island and its surrounding seas harbour diverse populations of wildlife. The west side of the island is a Site of Special Scientific Interestand the seas around the island are a Special Area of Conservation.
The island has several
Neolithicburial chamber sites, as well as the remains of Duke Hakon's 13th century house dating from the Norseoccupation of the island. The population reached 380 or more in the nineteenth century, when a fishing station was opened at Crabbaberry in West Voe. Subsequently there was a steady decline in population, although the numbers have increased from a low of 16 in the 1970s.
Today the main settlement on the
islandis Biggings, just to the east of which is Housa Voe from where the "Snolda" ferryarrives from its base at West Burrafirth on the Shetland Mainland. Crofting, especially sheep rearing, is the mainstay of island life.
Numerous shipwrecks have occurred around the coast, and the celebrated poem "Da Sang o da Papa Men" by
Vagalandrecalls the drama of the days when Papa Stour was a centre for deep-sea fishing.
Papa Stour is located at the south western end of St Magnus Bay. There are 34 kilometres (21 miles) of rugged coastline which is indented by numerous small embayments and four larger 'voes'. Hamna Voe (
Old Norse: 'harbour creek') in the south is the most sheltered anchorage and the surrounding cliffs contain a natural rock arch. Housa Voe to the east ( Old Norse: 'house creek') is less secluded but is the main harbour for the island and the ferry's embarkation point. Brei Holmand Maiden Stackguard the harbour entrance to the south. The former is a tidal island and was a leper colonyuntil the 18th century, (although it has been suggested that many of the "lepers" there were suffering from a vitamin deficiencyrather than leprosy). The latter's name relates to a story from the 14th century. Lord Thorvald Thoresson is said to have constructed of the tiny house at its top, (the ruins of which are still visible) in order to "preserve" his daughter from men. Unfortunately for his plans, when she left she was found to be pregnant, or in another version of the story, she and her fisherman sweetheart successfully eloped. West Voe, the inner part of which is called 'Robies Noust' is the main voe in the north coast, the smaller Culla Voe lying immediately to the west.
The main settlement on the island today is Biggings, which overlooks Housa Voe and is surrounded by in-bye land to the east of the hill dyke (which runs south from West Voe). To the west the island is bisected by a belt of glacial
moraineabout one and a half kilometres in length. Much of the rest of the area consists of a shallow stony soil that may be derived from glacial till. There is an almost complete absence of peat on the island and due to the volcanic rocks the soils are relatively fertile. The lack of peat led to 'turf scalping' for fuel and the bare areas of rock in the interior. [Spence, David (1979) "Shetland's Living Landscape; A study in Island Plant Ecology". The Thule Press. Shetland]
The highest point on the island is in the north west at Virda Field, which rises to 87 metres (285 feet). "Virda" is possibly from the Old Norse for 'heap of stones'. [ [http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/freefun/didyouknow/placenames/scandinavianglossary.html "Glossary of Scandinavian origins of place names in Britain"] Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 15 September 2007]
List of outliers
In addition to the larger islets mentioned above there are various other isles and skerries around the coast of Papa Stour. They include: Aesha Stack, Boinna Skerry, Borse Skerry, Fogla Skerry,
Forewick Holm, Galti Stacks, Holm of Melby, Koda Skerry, Lyra Skerry, Skerries of Quidaness, Skerry of Lambaness, Sula Stack, Swat Skerry, The Horn, Tiptans Skerry and Wilma Skerry. The Ve Skerrieslie 5 kilometres (3 miles) to the north west. They include: Helliogoblo, North Skerry, Ormal, Reaverack and The Clubb. In between Papa Stour and Ve Skerries lies the shallow bank of Papa-rof.Crawford, Barbara E. [http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/papar/shetland1.html "Shetland: S1. Papa Stour, Sandness centred HU 169 607"] The Papar Project. Retrieved 15 September 2007.]
On 21 June 2008,
Stuart Hill, the owner and only resident of the 1 hectare (2.5 acre) island of Forewick Holm(which he has renamed "Forvik Island") made a declaration of dependence, creating the Crown Dependency of Forvik. On the basis of a marriage arrangement between King Christian of Norwayand King James III of Scotlandthat dates to 1468 the island was declared to be a British crown dependency, and thus not a part of the United Kingdomor of the European Union. [cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2157245/Captain-Calamity-to-create-new-state-in-Shetland-islands.html|title=Captain Calamity to create new state in Shetland islands|publisher=telegraph.co.uk|accessdate=2008-06-22|date=2008-06-19|last=Khan|first=Urmee] [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080621/od_uk_nm/oukoe_uk_britain_island_independence "Tiny Shetland island declares independence"] news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 22 June 2008.]
The island is composed of a variety of
volcanic, metamorphicand sedimentaryrock formations from the Devonianperiod. At that time the Scottish landmass formed part of the Old Red Sandstone Continent and lay some 10-25 degrees south of the equator. The accumulations of Old Red Sandstone, laid down from 408 to 370 million years ago, were created as earlier Silurianrocks, uplifted by the formation of Pangaea, eroded and then were deposited into river deltas. The freshwater Orcadian Lakesexisted on the edges of the eroding mountains, stretching from Shetland to the southern Moray Firth. The structure of Papa Stour is largely made up of ashes and lavas from volcanic activity associated with this period, including bands of solidified volcanic ash ( ignimbrite) and lava ( rhyolite), but there is also a Devonian fish bed at Lamba Banks. There are numerous large boulders deposited by Pleistocene glaciation. [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/geology.html "Papa Stour Geology"] Zetnet.co.uk Retrieved 25 August 2007.] [ [http://www.scottishgeology.com/geology/geological_time_scale/timeline/devonian.htm "The Devonian Period"] Scottishgeology.com Retrieved 15 August 2007.] [Gillen, Con (2003) "Geology and landscapes of Scotland". Harpenden. Terra Publishing. Pages 110-119.]
Erosion of the soft volcanic rocks by the sea has created an extraordinary variety of caves, stacks, arches, blowholes, cliffs, voes and
geos that are amongst the finest in Britain. The 'Holl o Boardie' is a cave that passes right through the north-west tip of the island. It is nearly half a mile long and wide enough to row through. Kirstan (or Christie's) Hole in the south west is another spectacular cave, part of the roof of which collapsed in 1981. Yet another is 'Francie's Hole' close to Hamna Voe in the west. This was the favourite of John Tudor who wrote of the island in his Victorian memoirs and described the cave as:
"...in fairyland, so exquisite is the colouring of the roof and sides and so pellucid is the water... [with] alcoves or recesses like stalls in a church."
In 1953 the spectacular headland, 'Da Horn o Papa' fell into the sea during a storm. The nearby islet of
Brei Holmalso has caves that can be accessed by small boats when conditions permit. [Tudor, J.R. (1883) "The Orkneys and Shetland"]
Grey Seals, Killer Whales and Harbour Porpoises are frequently seen on and around Papa Stour. Atlantic Puffin, Arctic and Common Tern, Bonxie and Arctic Skua, Northern Fulmar, Common Guillemot, Razorbill, Curlew, Wheatear, Ringed Ploverand Great Black-backed Gullall breed on the island, and numerous migratory species have been recorded.
There is a profusion of wild flowers, including
Mountain Everlasting, Spring Squilland Eyebrightas well as the ubiquitous Heather. The west side of the island is a Site of Special Scientific Interestand the seas around Papa Stour are a Special Area of Conservation. The traditional Shetland Ponyis still bred. [ [http://www.conradweb.co.uk/Papa_Stour_magazine_31_03_2006.pdf "Papa Stour-the place"] (pdf) Papa Stour magazine, Retrieved 14 September 2007.] [ [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/nature.html "Papa Stour - Natural History"] Zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007.]
History and archaeology
Human settlement of the island dates from circa 3000 BC and there are remains of several
Neolithicburial chambers known as 'heel-shaped cairns'. [http://www.shetland-heritage.co.uk/brochures/area_pages/papa_stour/exploring_part_1.htm "Exploring Part 1"] Shetland-heritage.co.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2007.] Little is known of the pre-Celtic and Celtic eras, but when the Norse arrived it is likely they found a religious settlement as the name of the island derives from "Papey Stóra" meaning "Big island of the Papar" (Celtic monks), in distinction to Papa Littlesome 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) to the west.
Papa Stour is the subject of a 1299 manuscript written in
Old Norse, which is the oldest surviving document from Shetland. [Crawford, Barbara E. (ed) (2002) "Papa Stour and 1299: Commemorating the 700th Anniversary of Shetland's First Document". The Shetland Times. ISBN 1-898852-83-9] [Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) "Orkneyinga Saga". Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint). ISBN 0-901824-25-9] It deals with a dramatic incident in the house of Duke Hakon Magnusson, who was later to become King Hakon V of Norway. There is a circle of stones near the beach at Housa Voe, which are the remains of a 'ting', or local assembly. This was the scene of a duel, fought and won by Lord Thorvald Thoresson, who was accused of corruption in the 1299 document and was later called ‘dominus de Papay’. (The story of his unfortunate daughter is referred to above.) The remains of Duke Hakon's thirteenth century house are still visible near Housa Voe.
cots rule and fishing
In 1469 Shetland came under nominal Scottish control, although the Norse 'Lairds of Norway' kept their Papa Stour estates until the 17th century. [http://www.visitshetland.com/area-guides/papa-stour/ "Papa Stour"] Visit Shetland. Retrieved 15 September 2007.] In the 16th century merchants from
Bremenand Hamburgwere operating a summer trading booth to buy fish from the local fleet. By the 18th century, two Scottish lairds, Thomas Giffordof Busta, and Arthur Nicolson of Lerwick, owned the island. They maintained a prosperous Haaf (Old Norse: 'deep sea') fishing industry, undertaken in the summer months using six-oared boats known as sixareens.
In addition to the leper colony on Brei Holm there may have been another at Hilla Fielle [This is the name provided by Visit Shetland. The Ordnance Survey call it 'Hill of Feilie' and the Papar Project, 'Hill of Feelie'] overlooking Hamna Voe. A recent archaeological survey was inconclusive but suggests the site may be much older than the supposed 18th century colony. [ [http://www.visitshetland.com/area-guides/papa-stour/ "Papa Stour area guide"] Visit Shetland. Retrieved 15 September 2007.]
The island church, which overlooks Kirk Sand in the bay of Fore Wick, was founded in 1806. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=43488 "Walls and Sandness"] British-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2007.] 300 metres from the present church there may be an older chapel site of Sneeans or Snøyans on the headland between the west end of Kirk Sand and the bay of Tusselby. It is called the 'ald kirk' by locals and referred to by the Ordnance Survey as "the site of a Romish chapel belonging to about the twelfth century". There is a tradition that the work there was interfered with by supernatural powers and that each day's work on the building was destroyed during the night. Eventually the corner stones were moved overnight by these unearthly agencies to the present site of the church and work was re-commenced there successfully. Excavations in 2004 found little besides large blocks of rhyolite and a piece of whalebone rib, suggesting that the oral tradition may have some truth to it.
In the 19th century the Crabbaberry fishing station in West Voe was opened and the island had a population of 360 people or more. However, fuel shortages and a decline in fishing due to the introduction of steam drifters saw a fall in population from the 1870s on. [ [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/history.html "Papa Stour - History"] Zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007.] At this time another duel entered the history of Papa Stour. Edwin Lindsay, an Indian army officer and the son of the 6th Earl of Balcarres, was declared insane and sent to the island in disgrace after refusing to fight in one. He spent 26 years as a prisoner before the
Quakerpreacher Catherine Watson arranged for his release in 1835. Lindsay's Well is a spring at the south of the island where he was allowed to bathe. [Lindsay's brother may have been similarly incarcerated on Shapinsayin the Orkney isles. See [http://www.thepeerage.com/p23130.htm#i231297 The Peerage.com] Retrieved 15 September 2007.]
There are good examples of horizontal water mills, also known as Norse or Clack Mills, around Dutch Loch. [The name "Dutch Loch" suggests a connection with German traders. "Dutch" is probably a corruption of "Deutch" or "Duitsch" as Dutch traders were generally referred to as "Hollanders" in Shetland. [http://shetlopedia.com/Hanseatic_Places "Hanseatic_Places"] shetlopedia.com. Retrieved 25 September 2007.] Originally these were two story buildings with turf roofs, built into banks to give access to the upper floor where the mill-stone was sited. Inside the building there was a fixed lower millstone, and a rotating upper millstone driven by the water falling onto the paddles below. Some were still in use on Papa Stour in the early years of the 20th century, and there is still a working example of one of these mills on the Burn of Clumlie, at Troswick in the south Mainland of Shetland. [ [http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/highlightacp1.html "The Architecture Catalogue Project: Troswick Clack Mill"] The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 23 September 2007.]
20th and 21st centuries
In common with many small Scottish islands, Papa Stour's population peaked in the 19th century and has experienced a significant decline since then (see e.g.
Mingulay). By 1970 the island school had closed and the population had declined to sixteen 'fairly elderly' residents, but an advertisement in "Exchange and Mart" reversed the decline. A croft and five sheep were offered free of charge to incomers which brought a flood of applicants. By 1981 the census recorded a population of 33. However, by 2005 the population had fallen to 20 after serious discord between islanders led to several court cases. A number of people left the island and the school closed. [cite news| url=http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1572674,00.html| work= The Observer| title=Papa Stour: pop. 20 and falling, as feuds tear island families apart| author=Lorna Martin| date=September 18, 2005| accessdate=2007-07-30] By early 2008 the population had dropped to just nine after a family of seven left. [Urquhart, Frank (28 February 2008) "Death of an island: Aftermath of feuds leaves community with just nine residents". Edinburgh. "The Scotsman".]
Overview of population trends
The coasts around Papa Stour have claimed numerous wrecks. In Hamnavoe, Tiptans Skerry alone has sunk Dutch, French, German and Norwegian ships.
The Aberdeen trawler "Ben Doran" A178, foundered on the
Ve Skerries3 miles northwest of Papa Stour, on the evening of 28 March 1930 while on her way to the village of Scallowayto land her catch. When she grounded weather conditions were fairly good but it was not until the following day that a passing trawler saw, and reported the wreck. By the time that various rescue attempts were launched by the coastguard and local volunteers (there being no lifeboat in Shetland at that time), weather conditions had deteriorated to the point where it was impossible to approach the skerries. A request had been made for the Stromnesslifeboat from Orkney, only 120 miles away, to launch, but the request was made too late to be of help. All 9 crew perished in the wreck. Only 3 bodies were recovered, that of James Mitchell, which was returned to Aberdeen, and the bodies of J. Cormack and J.R. Insh, which were buried in Scalloway. [Details from "The Other Trawler", a BBC Radio Scotland production, broadcast on BBC Radio Shetland, 1978.]
The cargo ship "SS Highcliffe" ran aground in fog on Forewick Holm in February 1940. On this occasion the conditions were clement and only the ship and cargo were lost. In 1967 the Aberdeen trawler "Juniper" ran aground in Lyra Sound at the bottom of the 60 metre (200 foot) cliffs. The 12 man crew were rescued by the
Aithlifeboat, the coxswain being awarded the RNLIsilver medal for this rescue. [ [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/wrecks.html "Papa Stour - Shipwrecks"] Zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007.]
Papa Stour's most recent shipwreck occurred on 9 December 1977 when the Aberdeen trawler "Elinor Viking" A278, skipper Alec Flett, foundered on the Ve Skerries. The Aith Lifeboat came to the scene but was unable to get near enough to rescue the crew because of the sea conditions. At the request of Alec Webster, Coastguard Station Officer, Lerwick, a volunteer crew in a
British AirwaysSikorsky S61N helicopter from Sumburgh Airportwas scrambled. They managed to winch all the boat's crew to safety within hours of the grounding, despite the storm force winds. The helicopter crew later received a number of awards for bravery. There was no loss of life, but this incident prompted the building of a lighthouse on the skerries in 1979, and may also have been the example required for the formation of the present Search and Rescue helicopter unit, based at Sumburgh Airport. [ [http://www.shetland-heritage.co.uk/brochures/area_pages/papa_stour/exploring_part_2.htm "Exploring Part 2"] Shetland-heritage.co.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2007.] [ [http://shetlopedia.com/Elinor_Viking "Elinor Viking"] Shetlopedia. Retrieved 13 September 2007.] [ [http://www.trawlerphotos.co.uk/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/2689/cat/500/ppuser/105 "Elinor Viking"] Trawlerphotos.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2007.]
Crofting is the mainstay of island life. Sheep form the backbone of the agricultural economy but a diversity livestock are kept, including cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks and geese. Vegetable are grown too, often in the shelter of circular walls, such plots being known as 'plantie scrubs'. Fishing is still conducted but on a relatively small scale. There is a post office at the pier, but no shop. Mains electricity only came to the island at the close of the twentieth century. [ [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/lifestyl.html "Papa Stour - Lifestyle"] Zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007.] The Papa Stour Project is a Christian supported housing service offering accommodation to men with drug and alcohol issues. [ [http://www.papastour.org/ "Welcome to Papa Stour Project"] Papa Stour Project. Retrieved 13 September 2007.]
Ferries now sail across the Sound of Papa to
West Burrafirthon the Shetland Mainland. The crossing takes 45 minutes, and although the "Snolda" carries cars, there is only one short road on the island. [ [http://www.visitshetland.com/area-guides/papa-stour/ "Papa Stour - Getting There"] Visit Shetland. Retrieved 15 September 2007.] There is an airstrip which caters for regular flights from Tingwall. [ [http://www.shetland-heritage.co.uk/brochures/area_pages/papa_stour/all_about_the_area.htm "All about the area"] Shetland-heritage.co.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2007.] For visiting yachts the four main voes provide good shelter, but the strong tides in both the Sound of Papa and to the north west require considerable care.
Culture and the arts
The Papa Stour sword dance may be of Norse origin and bears similarities to the long sword dance of the north east of England. A description of the dance appears in "The Pirate" by
Sir Walter Scott. [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/traditn.html "Papa Stour - Tradition"] Zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2007.] [ [http://www.folkplay.info/Texts/78hu16sw.htm "Scott's Papa Stour Sword Dance - 1788"] folkplay.info. Retrieved 7 October 2007.]
The writer and journalist
John Sandslived on Papa Stour and Foulafor a while during the late nineteenth century. [Fleming, Andrew (2005) "St Kilda and the Wider World: Tales of an iconic island". Macclesfield. Windgather Press. Page 159.] The writer, folklorist and musician, George P. S. Peterson was brought up on Papa Stour. [ [http://www.redwebforum.com/isles/papa%20stour/Home.htm "Papa Stour"] Lonely Isles.com. Retrieved 7 October 2007.]
It is also the 'Papa' of
Vagaland's poem "Da Sang o da Papa men", now adopted as part of the folksong tradition, as set to music by T.M.Y. Manson. The insistent chorus chant, 'Rowin Foula Doon!', is particularly striking.
:"Oot bewast da Horn o Papa,:Rowin Foula doon!:Owir a hidden piece o water,:Rowin Foula doon!:Roond da boat da tide-lumps makkin,:Sunlicht trowe da cloods is brakkin;:We maan geng whaar fish is takkin,:Rowin Foula doon!" [This is a 'translation' for those unfamiliar with the Shetland dialect.
"Out west of the Horn of Papa, Rowing Foula down!
Over a hidden piece of water, Rowing Foula down!
Round the boat the tide-lumps are growing,
Sunlight through the clouds is breaking;
We must go where fish are taking bait, Rowing Foula down!"
Fleming, Richard [http://www.conradweb.co.uk/Papa_Stour_magazine_31_03_2006.pdf "Da Song o’ da Papa Men including a translation"] (pdf) Papa Stour magazine, Retrieved 13 September 2007.]
"Rowin Foula doon!" refers to the fishermens' practice of rowing their open fishing boat out to sea until the high cliffs of
Foulawere no longer visible. This entailed the boat being some 96 kilometres (60 miles) west of Papa Stour. The 'tide-lumps' are increased swells of unusual size due to the combined action of wind against tide. [ [http://www.conradweb.co.uk/Papa_Stour_magazine_31_03_2006.pdf "Rowin Foula doon"] (pdf) Papa Stour magazine, Retrieved 13 September 2007.] The resonant final image of the piece is of the fishermen being led back home to Papa by the 'scent o flooers' across the water. This is an example of Vagaland's ability to create a vivid sensual impression of a situation. An extra layer of meaning is added by the knowledge that Da Horn o Papa collapsed in a storm around the time of this poem's composition, so that it is a tribute not just to a lost way of life, but a noted geographical feature. [Vagaland (edited by M. Robertson) (1975) "The Collected Poems of Vagaland". Lerwick. The Shetland Times.] [ [http://shetlopedia.com/Papa_Stour "Papa Stour"] Shetlopedia. Retrieved 13 September 2007.]
* Peterson, George (1965) "Hairst Blinks Ower Papa". Shetland Times. A book of verse.
* Crawford, Barbara E (1999) "Biggins, Papa Stour, Shetland: The History and Excavation of a Royal Norwegian Farm." Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. ISBN 0903903156.
* Johnston, Alfred Wintle (1912) "The Sword Dance, Papa Stour, Shetland, and Four Shetland Airs." The Viking Club Society for Northern Research.
* "Monumental Inscriptions: Parish of Sandness (Including Island of Papa Stour)". (2002) Monumental inscriptions Bk. 24. Shetland Family History Society. ISBN 1903439183
* [http://www.orcadian.co.uk/books/reviews/papastour.htm Review of book on the 1299 manuscript]
* [http://www.conradweb.co.uk/html/papa_stour_photos.html Photos of Papa Stour by Conrad]
* [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/papa-stour/history.html Papa Stour - History and detailed map]
* [http://www.visitshetland.com/area-guides/papa-stour/ Papa Stour - Area Guide]
* [http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/papar/shetland1.html Papa Stour, The Papar Project]
* [http://photos.shetland-museum.org.uk/ Shetland Museum] . The archives include images of Da Horn o Papa before its collapse.
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