- History of measurement systems in India
Various indigenous systems of measurement have been developed and employed in
Indiaover the ages. This page presents a brief overview of the history of measuring systems in India.
Manusmriti," an ancient Indian text, sets out the following as being among the duties of a king::"The king should examine the weights and balances every six months to ensure true measurements and to mark them with the royal stamp." -- "Manusmriti", 8th Chapter, Shloka 403.Thus, the need to standardize and authenticate weights and measures was felt in India at a very early epoch. Both archeological and textual evidence obtains to affirm the existence, at various points of time, of well-defined measurement systems in India.
Harappan era, which is nearly 5000 years old, one finds excellent examples of town planning and architecture. The length, breadth and width of the bricks used in this era were in the ratio 4:2:1. In the modern system, this is known as the English Bond system. The sizes of the bricks were the same all over the region.1
Iron Age India
= Mauryan period = **(GOPALAKRISHNA)**In the time of
Chandragupta Maurya, some 2400 years ago, there was a well - defined system of weights and measures. The governmentof that time ensured that everybody used the same system. According to this system, the smallest unit of length was "Parmanu". The different units of measurements were defined as follows ref|arth:
8 "Parmanu" = 1 "Rajahkan" (dust particle coming from the wheel of a
8 "Rajahkan" = 1 "Liksha" (egg of
8 "Liksha " = 1 "Yookamadhya"
8 "Yookamadhya" = 1 "Yavamadhya"
8 "Yavamadhya" = 1 "Angula"
8 "Angula" = 1 "Dhanurmushti"
In the Indian medical system,
Ayurveda, the units of mass and volume were well defined.
The measurement system during the time of the Mughal emperor,
Akbar, is described in "Ain - i - Akabari" by Abul Fazl. During this period the "gaz" was the measure of length. Each "gaz" was divided into 24 equal parts and each part was called a "Tassuj". This system was extensively used for land records, for construction of buildings, houses, wells, gardens and roads. The "gaz" was widely used till the introduction of the metric system in Indiain 1956.
Although indigenous systems of measurement prevailed during the British period, the government made efforts to achieve uniformity in weights and measures. The British rulers sought to connect the Indian weights and measures to those being used in
Great Britainat that time, which were inch, foot, yard for length and grain, ounce, pounds for weight. A compromise was reached in the system of measurements which continued until adoption of the metric system. (Metric conversions derived from Prinsep, 67):
1 'Ratti" = 0.122 grams8 "Ratti" = 1 "Masha" = 0.972 grams
12 "Masha" = 1 "Tola" = 11.662 grams
5 "Tola" = 1 "Chhatank" = 58.31 grams
16 "Chhatank" = 1 "Seer" = 933.005 grams
40 "Seer" = 1 "Maund" = 100 Pounds troy (exact) = 37320.182 grams
Introduction of metric system
After independence in
1947, it was realized that for fast industrial growth of the country, it would be necessary to establish a modern measurement system in the country. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, took keen interest in this matter. The Lok Sabhain April 1955resolved : "This house is of the opinion that the Government of Indiashould take necessary steps to introduce uniform weights and measures throughout the country based on metric system".
Metric systemwas thus introduced in India in 1956. See Metrication in Indiafor more on this topic.
Metrication in India
History of measurement
Indian science and technology
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=LTYGAAAAQAAJ&dq=indian+weights+and+measures+&psp=1/ Prinsep, James. "Useful Tables, Forming an Appendix to the Journal of the Asiatic Society." 2nd ed. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1840.]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
History of measurement — Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans. Primitive societies needed rudimentary measures for many tasks: constructing dwellings of an appropriate size and shape, fashioning clothing, or bartering food or raw… … Wikipedia
Systems of measurement — A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. Scientifically, when later analyzed, some… … Wikipedia
History of science and technology in China — Inventions … Wikipedia
Measurement — For bust/waist/hip measurement, see BWH. A typical tape measure with both metric and US units and two US pennies for comparison Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical quantity, such as a length, time,… … Wikipedia
History of technology — The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques. Background knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors have become possible through technologies which assist… … Wikipedia
History of China — Approximate territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China … Wikipedia
History of science — History of science … Wikipedia
History of astronomy — History of science … Wikipedia
India — /in dee euh/, n. 1. Hindi, Bharat. a republic in S Asia: a union comprising 25 states and 7 union territories; formerly a British colony; gained independence Aug. 15, 1947; became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations Jan. 26, 1950.… … Universalium
History of Indian science and technology — [ thumb|200px|right|Hand propelled wheel cart, Indus Valley Civilization (3000–1500 BCE). Housed at the National Museum, New Delhi.] [ thumb|right|200px|The Pundit (explorer) and Indian cartographer Nain Singh Rawat (19th century CE) received a… … Wikipedia