Well-field system

Well-field system

The well-field system (zh-cp|c=井田制度|p=jǐngtián zhìdù) was a Chinese land distribution method since at least 9th century BC (late Western Zhou Dynasty). It is named after the Chinese character for "well" (井 "jǐng"), which looks like the # symbol and represents the theoretical appearance for a piece of land under such an organization: the eight surrounding outer blocks being private (私田; sītián), and the central one block being communal or public (公田; gōngtián).

The entire fields are aristocrat-owned, but the private fields' produce is entirely the farmers'. The communal farms are worked on by all eight families, and the produce goes to the aristocrats.

The system was first suspended by Shang Yang in the state of Qin; other states followed suit. It was practically eclipsed by land privatisation during the Warring States Period.

As part of the "turning the clock back" reformations by Wang Mang during the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the system was restored temporarily and renamed to the King's Fields (王田; wángtián).

The practice was more or less ended by the Song Dynasty, but scholars like Zhang Zai and Su Xun were enthusiastic about its restoration and spoke of it in a perhaps oversimplifying admiration, invoking Mencius' frequent praise of the system.

Whether a pure well-field system ever existed is controversial.

See also

* Ejido
* Equal-field system
* Sharecropper
* Tenancy


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • well-field system — Communal land organization supposedly in effect early in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC). It is mentioned in the writings of Mencius, who advocated it. In the well field system, one unit of land was divided among eight peasant families. A shared… …   Universalium

  • Equal-field system — The Equal field system (zh cp|c=均田制度|p=jūntián zhìdù) (Also, Land equalization system) land system was a historical system of land ownership and distribution in China used from the Six Dynasties to Mid Tang dynasty. By the time of the Han dynasty …   Wikipedia

  • Open field system — Generic map of a medieval manor, showing strip farming, from William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1923 The open field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe from the Middle Ages to as recently as the 20th century in some …   Wikipedia

  • open-field system — ▪ agriculture       basic community organization of cultivation in European agriculture for 2,000 years or more. Its best known medieval form consisted of three elements: individual peasant holdings in the form of strips scattered among the… …   Universalium

  • field — /feeld/, n. 1. an expanse of open or cleared ground, esp. a piece of land suitable or used for pasture or tillage. 2. Sports. a. a piece of ground devoted to sports or contests; playing field. b. (in betting) all the contestants or numbers that… …   Universalium

  • system — systemless, adj. /sis teuhm/, n. 1. an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole: a mountain system; a railroad system. 2. any assemblage or set of correlated members: a system of currency; a system of… …   Universalium

  • Field — /feeld/, n. 1. Cyrus West, 1819 92, U.S. financier: projector of the first Atlantic cable. 2. David Dudley, Jr., 1805 94, U.S. jurist (brother of Cyrus West and Stephen Johnson Field). 3. Erastus Salisbury, 1805 1900, U.S. painter. 4. Eugene,… …   Universalium

  • well — well1 /wel/, adv., adj., compar. better, superl. best, interj., n. adv. 1. in a good or satisfactory manner: Business is going well. 2. thoroughly, carefully, or soundly: to shake well before using; listen well. 3. in a …   Universalium

  • Well drainage — means drainage of agricultural lands by wells. Agricultural land is drained by pumped wells (vertical drainage) to improve the soils by controlling water table levels and soil salinity. Contents 1 Introduction 2 Design 3 Flow to wells 4 …   Wikipedia

  • System of Physical Quantities — of Nikolay A. Plotnikov (SPQ) the classification of physical quantities or physical operators, that makes it possible to reveal their dependence on the geometry of space time and fundamental physical constants in the form of differential… …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»