- Asian-African Conference
The first large-scale Asian-African or Afro-Asian Conference — also known as the Bandung Conference — was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by
Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon( Sri Lanka), the Philippines, India, Iraq, and Japan, which took place on April 18- April 24, 1955, in Bandung, Indonesia, and was coordinated by Ruslan Abdulgani, secretary general of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The conference's stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialismor neocolonialismby the United States, the Soviet Union, or any other "imperialistic" nation.
Twenty-nine countries representing over half the world's population sent delegates. The conference reflected what they regarded as a reluctance by the Western powers to consult with them on decisions affecting Asia in a setting of
Cold Wartensions; their concern over tension between the People's Republic of Chinaand the United States; their desire to lay firmer foundations for China's peace relations with themselves and the West; their opposition to colonialism, especially French influence in North Africa and French colonial rule in Algeria; and Indonesia's desire to promote its case in the dispute with the Netherlandsover western New Guinea( Irian Barat). Soekarno, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia, portrayed himself as the leader of this group of nations, naming it NEFOS (Newly Emerging Forces). [Cowie, H.R. (1993). "Australia and Asia. A changing Relationship", 18.]
Major debate centered around the question of whether Soviet policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia should be censured along with Western colonialism. A consensus was reached in which "colonialism in all of its manifestations" was condemned, implicitly censuring the Soviet Union, as well as the West. China played an important role in the conference and strengthened its relations with other Asian nations. Having survived an assassination attempt by foreign intelligence services on the way to the conference, the Chinese premier,
Zhou Enlai, displayed a moderate and conciliatory attitude that tended to quiet fears of some anticommunist delegates concerning China's intentions.
Later in the conference, Zhou Enlai signed on to the article in the concluding declaration stating that
overseas Chineseowed primary loyalty to their home nation, rather than to China - a highly sensitive issue for both his Indonesian hosts and for several other participating countries.
A 10-point "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation," incorporating the principles of the
United Nations Charterand Jawaharlal Nehru's principles, was adopted unanimously:
#"Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the charter of the United Nations
#"Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations
#"Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations large and small
#"Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country
#"Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself, singly or collectively, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations
#"(a) Abstention from the use of arrangements of collective defence to serve any particular interests of the big powers
(b) Abstention by any country from exerting pressures on other countries
#"Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country
#"Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, such as negotiation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement as well as other peaceful means of the parties own choice, in conformity with the charter of the united nations
#"Promotion of mutual interests and cooperation
#"Respect for justice and international obligations." [cite journal| last = Jayaprakash| first = N D | title = India and the Bandung Conference of 1955 – II | journal = People's Democracy - Weekly Organ of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) |volume = XXIX | issue = 23 | date = June 05, 2005 |url=http://pd.cpim.org/2005/0605/06052005_bandung%20conf.htm |publisher= |accessdate=2007-02-07]
The Final Communique of the Conference underscored the need for developing countries to loosen their economic dependence on the leading industrialized nations by providing technical assistance to one another through the exchange of experts and technical assistance for developmental projects, as well as the exchange of technological know-how and the establishment of regional training and research institutes.
The conference of Bandung was preceded by the
BogorConference ( 1954) and was followed by the BelgradeConference ( 1961), which led to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement. [Nazli Choucri, "The Nonalignment of Afro-Asian States: Policy, Perception, and Behaviour", "Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique", Vol. 2, No. 1.(Mar., 1969), pp. 1-17.] In later years, conflicts between the nonaligned nations eroded the solidarity expressed at Bandung.
To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Conference, Heads of State and Government of Asian-African countries attended a new Asian-African Summit from 20-
24 April 2005in Bandung and Jakarta. Some sessions of the new conference took place in Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building), the venue of the original conference. The conference concluded by establishing the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP).
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence
Cold War (1962-1991)
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1955nehru-bandung2.html Modern History Sourcebook: Prime Minister Nehru: Speech to Asian-African Conference Political Committee, 1955]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1955sukarno-bandong.html Modern History Sourcebook: President Sukarno of Indonesia: Speech at the Opening of the Asian-African Conference,
18 April 1955]
* "Asia-Africa Speaks From Bandung." Jakarta: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia, 1955.
* Kahin, George McTurnan. "The Asian-African Conference: Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955." Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1956.
* Mackie, Jamie. "Bandung 1955: Non-alignment and Afro-Asian Solidarity." Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2005. ISBN 981-4155-49-7
* Ampiah, Kweku. "The Political and Moral Imperatives of the Bandung Conference of 1955 : the Reactions of the US, UK and Japan." Folkestone, UK : Global Oriental, 2007. ISBN 190-5246-40-4
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