Aristophanes (Unicode|Ἀριστοφάνης, pronEng|ˌær
ɪˈstɒfəniːz in English, ca. 446 BC – ca. 386 BC), son of Philippus, was a Greek Old Comic dramatist. He is also known as "the Father of Comedy" and "the Prince of Ancient Comedy". [ [http://manybooks.net/support/b/brewere/brewere1143111431-8.exp.html Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol. 1] ]
The place and exact date of Aristophanes' birth are unknown, but he was clearly a relatively young man in 427 BC when his "Banqueters" took second place in the
Theater of Dionysus. His family was from the demeof Kudathenaion (the same as that of the Athenian statesman Cleon, who rose to prominence after the death of Pericles). Aristophanes was born into a poor unknown family.. He's thought to have written forty to forty-four plays, eleven of which survive, which were performed at the City Dionysia and the Lenaiafestivals. These plays are the only surviving complete examples of Old Attic Comedy, although extensive fragments of the work of his rough contemporaries Cratinusand Eupolissurvive. Many of Aristophanes' plays have substantial politicalcontent, and often satirized well-known citizens of Athens and their conduct in the Peloponnesian Warand after. Hints in the text, supported by marginal comments by ancient scholars, suggest that he was prosecuted several times by Cleon, whom he repeatedly insults in his plays, for defaming Athens in the presence of foreigners and the like; how much truth there is to this is impossible to say. " The Frogs" was given the unprecedented honor of a second performance. According to a later biographer, Aristophanes was also awarded a civic crownfor the play.
Aristophanes was probably victorious at least once at the City Dionysia, with "Babylonians" in 427 (IG II2 2325. 58), and at least three times at the Lenaia, with "
Acharnians" in 425, "Knights" in 424, and "Frogs" in 405. His sons Araros, Philippos, and Nicostratos were also comic poets: Araros is said to have been heavily involved in the production of Wealth II in 388 (test. 1. 54–6) and to have been responsible for the posthumous performances of Aeolosicon II and Cocalus (Cocalus test. iii), with which he seems to have taken the prize at the City Dionysia in 387 (IG II2 2318. 196), while Philippus was twice victorious at the Lenaia (IG II2 2325. 140) and apparently produced some of Eubulus’ comedies (Eub. test. 4). (Aristophanes’ third son is sometimes said to have been called not Nicostratos but Philetaerus, and a man by that name appears in the catalogue of Lenaia victors with two victories, the first probably in the late 370s, at IG II2 2325. 143 (just after Anaxandrides and just before Eubulus).)
Aristophanes appears as a character in
Plato's "Symposium", offering an elaborate and ribald a myth to explain the origins of Love. Plato wrote the dialogue a generation or so after the events it portrays. It may perhaps be understood as his effort to show that Socrates and Aristophanes were not in fact enemies. This, in turn, would support a very pointed satirical interpretation of "Clouds" (original production 423 BCE): viz., Aristophanes, on this view, really sought to reduce to absurdity the prejudices against his friend Socrates. "The Symposium" is a remarkable achievement but many doubt that it captures the no doubt complex relationships of Socrates and Aristophanes..
Of the other surviving plays, "Clouds" resulted in a humiliating third place or lower at the City Dionysia (cf. the
parabasisof the revised (preserved) version of the play, and the parabasis of the following year's "Wasps"). The play satirizes the sophistic learning "en vogue" in Athens at the time. Socratesis the principal target and emerges as a typical Sophist; in Plato's Apology at 18d, the character Socrates suggests that it was the foundation of the charges that ultimately led to his conviction in the Athenian lawcourts and execution in 399. Perhaps the poet's other best-known play today is " Lysistrata", written in the final decade of the Peloponnesian War, in which Athensand its allies fought against Spartaand the Peloponnesian League. The play argues not so much for pacifismas for the idea that the two leading states ought not be fighting one another at this point but combining to rule Greece. This is accomplished when the women of the two sides deprive their husbands of sex until they stop fighting. Lysistrata was later illustrated at length by Pablo Picassoand Aubrey Beardsley.
The Acharnians" (Polytonic|Ἀχαρνεῖς "Acharneis", Latin: " _la. Acharnenses") (425 BC)
The Knights" (Polytonic|Ἱππεῖς "Hippeis" Latin: " _la. Equites") (424 BC)
The Clouds" (Polytonic|Νεφέλαι "Nephelai" Latin: " _la. Nubes") (original 423 BC, uncompleted revised version from 419 BC – 416 BC survives)
The Wasps" (Polytonic|Σφήκες "Sphekes" Latin: " _la. Vespae") (422 BC)
* "Peace" (Polytonic|Εἰρήνη "Eirene" Latin: " _la. Pax") (first version, 421 BC)
* "The Birds" (Polytonic|Ὄρνιθες "Ornithes" Latin: " _la. Aves") (414 BC)
Lysistrata" (Polytonic|Λυσιστράτη) (411 BC)
Thesmophoriazusae" or "The Women Celebrating the Thesmophoria" (Polytonic|Θεσμοφοριάζουσαι (first version, c. 411 BC)
The Frogs" (Polytonic|Βάτραχοι "Batrachoi" Latin: " _la. Ranae") (405 BC)
* "Ecclesiazusae" or "The Assemblywomen" (Polytonic|Ἐκκλησιάζουσαι) (c. 392 BC)
* "Plutus" or "Wealth" (Polytonic|Πλοῦτος) (second version, 388 BC)
Datable non-surviving ("lost") plays
The standard modern edition of the fragments is Kassel-Austin, Poetae Comici Graeci III.2; Kock-numbers are now outdated and should not be used.
Banqueters" (427 BC)
* "Babylonians" (426 BC)
* "Farmers" (424 BC)
* "Merchant Ships" (423 BC)
Clouds" (first version) (423 BC)
* "Proagon" (422 BC)
* "Amphiaraos" (414 BC)
* "Plutus" ("Wealth", first version, 408 BC)
* "Gerytades" (uncertain, probably 407 BC)
* "Kokalos" (387 BC)
* "Aiolosikon" (second version, 386 BC)
Undated non-surviving (lost) plays
* "Aiolosikon" (first version)
* "Frying-Pan Men"
* "Lemnian Women"
* "Old Age"
* "Peace" (second version)
* "Phoenician Women"
Thesmophoriazusae" ("Women at the Thesmophoria Festival", second version)
* "Women in Tents"; Attributed (doubtful, possibly by Archippos)
* "Dionysos Shipwrecked"
Aristophanes in fiction
Acropolis Now (radio)- this is a comedy radio show for the BBC set in Ancient Greece. It features Aristophanes, Socrates and many other famous Greeks. (Not to be confused with the Australian sitcom of the same name)
* Aristophanes, and most frequently "The Clouds", is mentioned frequently by the character Menedemos in the
Hellenic Tradersseries of novels by H N Turteltaub.
Aristophanes Against the Worldwas a radio play by Martyn Wadeand broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Loosely based on several of his plays, it featured Clive Merrisonas Aristophanes.
* In "The Odd Couple", Oscar and Felix are on "Password", and when the password is bird, Felix’s clue is Aristophanes because he wrote a play called "The Birds". After failing to guess it, Oscar says that the clue is ridiculous, and then when it’s Oscar’s turn to give the clue on the team’s next shot, the password is ridiculous and Oscar’s clue is Aristophanes, to which Felix instantly responds, ‘Ridiculous!’
* Aristophanes was also featured in "" as a main character.
Theatre of ancient Greece
*Asteroid 2934 Aristophanes, named after the dramatist
*Henderson, Jeffrey " [http://books.google.com/books?id=aBsR2BEuAq0C The Maculate Muse: Obscene Language in Attic Comedy] " 1991 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-506685-5:* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-8299%28197623%2930%3A3%3C291%3ATMMOLI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z&size=LARGE reviewed] by W.J. Slater, "Phoenix", Vol. 30, No. 3 (Autumn, 1976), pp. 291-293 doi:10.2307/1087300
* Platter, Charles. "Aristophanes and the Carnival of Genres (Arethusa Books)". Baltimore, MD; London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8018-8527-2).
*Lee, Jae Num. "Scatology in Continental Satirical Writings from Aristophanes to Rabelais" and "English Scatological Writings from Skelton to Pope." Swift and Scatological Satire. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1971. 7-22; 23-53.
*" [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9475%28196601%2987%3A1%3C111%3AAATCH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage Aristophanes and the Comic Hero] " by Cedric H. Whitman Author(s) of Review: H. Lloyd Stow The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Jan., 1966), pp. 111-113
*G. M. Sifakis " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4269(1992)112%3C123%3ATSOAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T The Structure of Aristophanic Comedy] " The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 112, 1992 (1992), pp. 123-142 doi:10.2307/632156
* [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristophanes/ The Eleven Comedies (in translation)] at [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/ eBooks @ Adelaide]
* [http://www.greektexts.com/library/Aristophanes/index.html Aristophanes Texts] Biography and texts of Aristophanes
* [http://www.textkit.com/view-author/author_id/8/ The texts of Aristophanes' plays (in translation)]
* [http://wiktionary.org/wiki/Lopadotemachoselachogaleokranioleipsanodrimhypotrimmatosilphioparaomelitokatakechymenokichlepikossyphophattoperisteralektryonoptekephalliokigklopeleiolagoiosiraiobaphetraganopterygon Contribution to the English Language]
* [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0034922/ List of films based on Aristophanes plays]
* [http://www.theonion.com/content/node/56008/ Today's Audiences Just Don't Get Me] Satirical article written "by" Aristophanes at [http://www.theonion.com/ The Onion]
* [http://madeinatlantis.com/athens/aristophanes.htm Life of Aristophanes]
Hubert Parrywrote music for The Birds
* [http://www.rhapsodes.fll.vt.edu/aristophanes.htm SORGLL: Aristophanes, Birds 227-62; read by Stephen Daitz]
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