- Hydrogen production
Hydrogen is commonly produced by extraction from
hydrocarbon fossilfuels via a chemical path. Hydrogenmay also be extracted from water via biological production in an algae bioreactor, or using electricity(by electrolysis), chemicals (by chemical reduction) or heat(by thermolysis); these methods are less developed for bulk generation in comparison to chemical paths derived from hydrocarbons. The discovery and development of less expensive methods of bulk production of hydrogen will accelerate the establishment of a hydrogen economy.
Hydrogen can be generated from
natural gaswith approximately 80% efficiency, or from other hydrocarbons to a varying degree of efficiency. The hydrocarbon conversion method releases carbon dioxide (CO2). Since the production is concentrated in one facility, it is possible to separate the CO2 and dispose of it properly, for example by injecting it in an oil or gas reservoir (see carbon capture), although this is not currently done in most cases. A carbon dioxide injection project has been started by Norwegian company StatoilHydroin the North Sea, at the Sleipner field. However, even if the carbon dioxide is not sequestered, overall producing hydrogen from natural gas and using it for a hydrogen vehicle only emits half the carbon dioxide that a gasoline car would.
Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the
steam reformingof natural gas. At high temperatures (700–1100 °C), steam (H2O) reacts with methane(CH4) to yield syngas.
The heat required to drive the process is generally supplied by burning some portion of the methane.
Additional hydrogen can be recovered by adding more water through the lower-temperature
water gas shift reaction, performed at about 130 °C:
:CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 - 40.4 kJ/mol
oxygen(O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2.. This oxidation also provides energy to keep the reaction going.
Kværner-processor Kvaerner carbon black& hydrogenprocess (CB&H) [ [http://www.interstatetraveler.us/Reference-Bibliography/Bellona-HydrogenReport.html Bellona-HydrogenReport] ] is a method, developed in the 1980s by a Norwegian company of the same name, for the production of steam from hydrocarbons(CnHm), such as methane, natural gasand biogas.
Of the available energy of the feed, approximately 48% is contained in the Hydrogen, 40% is contained in
activated carbonand 10% in superheated steam. [ https://www.hfpeurope.org/infotools/energyinfos__e/hydrogen/main03.html]
Coalcan be converted into syngasand methane, also known as town gas, via coal gasification.
Fermentative hydrogen production
Fermentative hydrogen productionis the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogenmanifested by a diverse group bacteriausing multi enzymesystems involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion. Dark fermentationreactions do not require light energy, so they are capable of constantly producing hydrogenfrom organic compounds throughout the day and night. Photofermentationdiffers from dark fermentationbecause it only proceeds in the presence of light. For example photo-fermentation with Rhodobacter sphaeroidesSH2C can be employed to convert small molecular fatty acids into hydrogen [ [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18477081 High hydrogen yield from a two-step process of dark-and photo-fermentation of sucrose] ] . Electrohydrogenesisis used in microbial fuel cells.
Biohydrogencan be produced in an algae bioreactor. In the late 1990s it was discovered that if the algae is deprived of sulfurit will switch from the production of oxygen, i.e. normal photosynthesis, to the production of hydrogen.
It seems that the production is now economically feasible by trespassing the 7-10 percent energy efficiency (the conversion of sunlight into hydrogen) barrier.
Biohydrogen can and is produced in bioreactors that utilize feedstocks other than algae, the most common feedstock being waste streams. The process involves bacteria feeding on hydrocarbons and exhaling hydrogen and CO2. The CO2 can be sequestered successfully by several methods, leaving hydrogen gas. A prototype hydrogen bioreactor using waste as a feedstock is in operation at Welch's grape juice factory in North East, Pennsylvania.
Hydrogen can also be produced through a direct chemical path using electrolysis. With a renewable electrical energy supply, such as hydropower, wind turbines, or photovoltaic cells,
electrolysisof waterallows hydrogen to be made from water without pollution. Usually, the electricity consumed is more valuable than the hydrogen produced so this method has not been widely used in the past, but the importance of high pressure electrolysisis increasing as human population and pollution increase, and electrolysis will become more economically competitive as non-renewable resources (carbon compounds) dwindle and as governments remove subsidies on carbon-based fuels. Hydrogen can also be used to store renewable electricity when it's not needed (like the wind blowing at night) and then the hydrogen can be used to meet power needs during the day or fuel vehicles. This helps make hydrogen an enabler of the wider use of renewables.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting
Using electricity produced by photovoltaic systems offers the cleanest way to produce hydrogen. Water is broken into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis--a
photoelectrochemical cell(PEC) process which is also named artificial photosynthesis. Research aimed toward developing higher-efficiency multijunction cell technology is underway by the photovoltaic industry.
High-temperature electrolysis (HTE)
When the energy supply is in the form of heat (solar thermal, or nuclear), the best path to hydrogen is through
high-temperature electrolysis(HTE). In contrast with low-temperature electrolysis, HTE of water converts more of the initial heatenergy into chemical energy (hydrogen), potentially doubling efficiency to about 50%. Because some of the energy in HTE is supplied in the form of heat, less of the energy must be converted twice (from heat to electricity, and then to chemical form), and so less energy is lost.
HTE processes are generally only considered in combination with a nuclear heat source, because the other non-chemical form of high-temperature heat (concentrating solar thermal) is not consistent enough to bring down the capital costs of the HTE equipment. Research into HTE and high-temperature nuclear reactors may eventually lead to a hydrogen supply that is cost-competitive with natural gas steam reforming. HTE has been demonstrated in a laboratory, but not at a commercial scale.
Generation IV reactors operate at 850 to 1000 degrees Celsius, considerably hotter than existing commercial nuclear powerplants. General Atomicspredicts that hydrogen produced in a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) would cost $1.53/kg. In 2003, steam reforming of natural gas yielded hydrogen at $1.40/kg. At 2005 gas prices, hydrogen cost $2.70/kg Fact|date=February 2007. Hence, just within the United States, a savings of tens of billions of dollars per year is possible with a nuclear-powered supply. Much of this savings would translate into reduced oil and natural gas imports.
One side benefit of a nuclear reactor that produces both
electricityand hydrogen is that it can shift production between the two. For instance, the plant might produce electricity during the day and hydrogen at night, matching its electrical generation profile to the daily variation in demand. If the hydrogen can be produced economically, this scheme would compete favorably with existing grid energy storageschemes. What is more, there is sufficient hydrogen demand in the United Statesthat all daily peak generation could be handled by such plants [http://www.dis.anl.gov/ceeesa/documents/NuclearHydrogen_ANL0530Final.pdf] . However, Generation IV reactors are not expected until 2030 and it is uncertain if they can compete by then in safety and supply with the distributed generationconcept.
sodium hydroxideas a catalyst, aluminumand its alloys can react with water to generate hydrogen gas. [D. Belitskus. J. Electrochem. Soc. 117 (1970) 1097-1099] [L. Soler, J. Macanás, M. Muñoz, J. Casado. Journal of Power Sources 169 (2007) 144-149] Although other metals can perform the same reaction, aluminum is among the most promising materials for future development [H.Z. Wang, D.Y.C. Leung, M.K.H. Leung, M. Ni. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.rser.2008.02.009] because it is safer and easier to transport than some other hydrogen storage materials like sodium borohydride.
The initial reaction (1) consumes sodium hydroxide and produces both hydrogen gas and an aluminate byproduct. Upon reaching its saturation limit, the aluminate compound decomposes (2) into sodium hydroxide and a crystalline precipitate of aluminum hydroxide. This process is similar to the reactions inside an
:: (1) Al + 3 H2O + NaOH → NaAl(OH)4 + 1.5 H2
:: (2) NaAl(OH)4 → NaOH + Al(OH)3
The overall reaction is described by Reaction (3).
:: (3) Al + 3 H2O → Al(OH)3 + 1.5 H2
In this process, aluminum acts as a compact
hydrogen storagedevice because 1 kg of aluminum can theoretically produce up to 0.111 kg of hydrogen (or 11.1%). When employed in a fuel cell, that hydrogen can produce up to approximately 2.6 kWh of electricity [S.C. Amendola, M. Binder, M.T. Kelly, P.J. Petillo, S.L. Sharp-Goldman, in Advances in Hydrogen Energy. C.E. Grégorie Padró and F. Lau (editors), Kluwer Academic Publishers: New York, 2002, 69-86] . For comparison, another hydrogen storage material, sodium borohydride, can store up to 10.5% of its weight as hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy has outlined its goals for a compact hydrogen storage device [http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/hydrogen.pdf] and researchers are trying many approaches, such as by using a combination of aluminum and NaBH4, to achieve these goals. [L. Soler, J. Macanás, M. Muñoz and J. Casado (2007). Int J Hydrogen Energy 32: 4702-4710] .
Since the oxidation of aluminum is exothermic, these reactions can operate under mild temperatures and pressures, providing a stable and compact source of hydrogen. This
chemical reductionprocess is specially suitable for remote, mobile or marine applications. While the passivationof aluminum would normally slow this reaction considerably, [D. Stockburger, J.H. Stannard, B.M.L. Rao, W. Kobasz and C.D. Tuck, in Hydrogen Storage Materials, Batteries, and Electrochemistry A. Corrigan and S. Srinivasan (editors), Electrochemical Society, USA (1991) 431-444] its negative effects can be minimized by changing several experimental parameters such as temperature, alkali concentration, physical form of the aluminum, and solution composition.
Some thermochemical processes can produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity. Since all the input energy for such processes is heat, they can be more efficient than high-temperature electrolysis. This is because the efficiency of electricity production is inherently limited. Thermochemical production of hydrogen using chemical energy from coal or natural gas is generally not considered, because the direct chemical path is more efficient.
Hundreds of thermochemical cycles have been pre-screened. Some of the most promising ones include:
* cerium-chlorine cycle (Ce-Cl)
* iron-chlorine cycle (Fe-Cl)
* magnesium-iodine cycle (Mg-Cl)
* vanadium-chlorine (V-Cl)
* copper-sulfate (Cu-SO4)
There are also "hybrid" variants, which are thermochemical cycles with an electrochemical step:
hybrid sulfur cycle
For all the thermochemical processes, the summary reaction is that of the decomposition of water::
All other chemicals used are recycled.
None of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes have been demonstrated at production levels, although several have been demonstrated in laboratories.
Nanotechnologyresearch on photosynthesismay lead to more efficient solar production of hydrogen, such as with photoelectrochemical cells.
* The radical
Hydridic Earth theorysuggests that large quantities of hydrogen may exist in the Earth's mantle.
Hydrogen leak testing
The Hype about Hydrogen
Next Generation Nuclear Plant(partly for hydrogen production)
* [http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_progress07_production.html U.S. DOE 2007-Technical progress in hydrogen production]
* [http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/fuels/hydrogen/Hydrogen_from_Coal_R&D.html U.S. DOE Hydrogen from Coal Research]
* [http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_production_delivery.html U.S. NREL article on hydrogen production]
* [http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf70.html Article advocating the use of nuclear power to produce hydrogen]
* [http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_1-12-2006-11-4-23?newsid=3016 Genetically engineered blood protein can be used to produce hydrogen gas from water]
* [http://www.greencarcongress.com/biohydrogen/index.html Biohydrogen]
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