Terence V. Powderly

Terence V. Powderly

Infobox Person
name = Terence V. Powderly



caption = Terence V. Powderly
birth_date = birth date|1849|01|22
birth_place = Carbondale Pennsylvania
death_date = death date and age|1924|06|24|1849|01|22
occupation = Leader of the Knights of Labor from 1879–1893

Terence Vincent Powderly (January 22, 1849 – June 24, 1924 [http://libraries.cua.edu/achrcua/powderly/bio.html Terence Vincent Powderly and Ellis Island: Biography ] ] ) was born in Carbondale, Pennsylvania, the son of Irish immigrants. He was a well-known national figure as leader of the Knights of Labor from 1883–1893.

Life

Powderly is most remembered for leading the Knights of Labor ("KoL"), a labor union whose goal was to organize all workers, skilled and unskilled, into one big union united for workers' rights and economic and social reform. He joined the Knights in 1876, became Secretary of a District Assembly in 1877 and was elected Grand Master Workman in 1879, at the time the Knights had around 10,000 members. He served as Grand Master Workman until 1893. Powderly served 3 two-year terms as mayor of Scranton representing the Greenback-Labor Party beginning in 1878.

Like most labor union men of the time he advocated an eight-hour day and the abolition of child labor. The Knights also helped to organize unions for women and African American workers. By 1886, estimates for "KoL" membership range from 700,000 to 1 million members, including 10,000 women and 50,000 African Americans.

Powderly, along with many other white American labor leaders at the time, opposed the immigration of Chinese workers to the United States. He argued that immigrants took jobs away from native-born Americans and drove down wages, and even urged West Coast branches of the Knights of Labor to campaign for the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Powderly worked with the noted American bishop, James Gibbons, to persuade the pope to remove sanctions against Roman Catholics who joined unions. This was accomplished by doing away with the membership rituals influenced by freemasonry and removing the words "The Holy and Noble Order of" from the name of the Knights of Labor in 1882.

The Greenback ideology of producerism influenced Powderly more strongly than socialism, and since producerism regarded most employers as "producers", Powderly disliked strikes. In certain cases, the Knights organizes strikes against local firms where the employer might be admitted as a member. The strikes would cause internal fights between the laborers and the employers, resulting in a more purely-working class organization. Despite his personal ambivalence about labor action, Powderly's skillful organizing and the success of the Great Southwestern Strike of 1885 against Jay Gould's railroad more than compensated for the internal tension. The Knights of Labor grew so rapidly that at one point the organization called a moratorium on the issuance of charters.

The union was recognized as the first successful national labor union in the United States. During the next decade or so, the Knights of Labor achieved their greatest influence and greatest numerical significance. Powderly attempted to focus the union on cooperative endeavors. Eventually, the demands placed on the union by its members for immediate improvements, and the pressures of hostile business and government institutions, forced the Knights to function like a traditional labor union. However, the Knights of Labor were too disorganized to deal with the centralized industries that they were striking against. After the Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago on May 4 1886, Powderly refused to support anarchist Knights accused of inciting a bombing (see The McNamara Brothers). Membership dropped off sharply because of the Knights' alleged and unproven association with the Haymarket bombing (some referred to them as the "Dynamite Knights of Labor") and rampant factionalism divided the union.

Many KoL members joined the newly formed American Federation of Labor (AFL) which promoted craft unionism over the one all-inclusive union concept. Powderly was defeated for re-election as Master Workman in 1893, but the decline of the Knights continued. Marxist socialists led by Daniel DeLeon formally split from the Knights in 1895, forming the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance. Some remnants joined the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905, but isolated local assemblies continued to exist for decades. Powderly wrote a history of the Knights, but did not participate in any of these formations after his defeat.

He also tried his hand at practicing law, opening his own successful law practice in 1894. He was appointed U.S. Commissioner General of Immigration from 1897 to 1902, and the Chief Information Officer for the U.S. Bureau of Immigration from 1907 to 1921.

Powderly, a resident of the Petworth neighborhood in Washington, D.C., in the last years of his life, died on June 24 1924. He is buried at nearby Rock Creek Cemetery. His autobiography, "The Path I Trod", was published posthumously.

He was inducted into the U.S. Department of Labor Hall of Fame in January 2000.

Further reading

* cite journal
last = Powderly,
first = Terence V.
title = The Organization of Labor
journal = The North American Review
volume = 135
number = 309
pages = 118–127
date = August 1882
publisher = University of Northern Iowa
url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=AQ7578-0135-10

* cite journal
last = Powderly,
first = Terence V.
title = The Army of the Discontented
journal = The North American Review
volume = 140
number = 341
pages = 369–378
date = April 1885
publisher = University of Northern Iowa
url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0140-39

* cite journal
last = Powderly,
first = Terence V.
title = A Menacing Irruption
journal = The North American Review
volume = 147
number = 381
pages = 369–378
date = August 1888
publisher = University of Northern Iowa
url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0147-26

* cite journal
last = Powderly,
first = Terence V.
title = The Plea for Eight Hours
journal = The North American Review
volume = 150
number = 401
pages = 464–470
date = April 1890
publisher = University of Northern Iowa
url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0150-46

* cite journal
last = Powderly,
first = Terence V.
title = The Workingman and Free Silver
journal = The North American Review
volume = 153
number = 421
pages = 728–737
date = December 1891
publisher = University of Northern Iowa
url = http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0153-76

* cite book
last = Powderly
first = Terence Vincent
authorlink =
title = Thirty Years of Labor. 1859-1889
publisher = Excelsior publishing house
date = 1889
location =
pages = 693
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC01107187&id=W9cJAAAAIAAJ&dq=Terence+Vincent+Powderly
doi =
id =

* cite book
last = Powderly
first = Terence Vincent
authorlink =
coauthors = Edmund Janes James
title = The Labor Movement: The Problem of To-day
publisher = The M. W. Hazen Company
date = 1891
location =
pages = 628
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=LCCN07035699&id=m9AWHub7enwC&dq=Terence+Vincent+Powderly
doi =
id =

References

External links

* cite web
title = Terence Vincent Powderly Photographic Prints Collection
work =
publisher = The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives
date =
url = http://www.aladin.wrlc.org/gsdl/collect/powderly/powderly.shtml
format = HTML
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-08


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Terence V. Powderly — Terence Vincent Powderly Terence Vincent Powderly (* 22. Januar 1849 in Carbondale, Pennsylvania; † 24. Juni 1924 in Washington D.C.), war amerikanischer Gewerkschafter, von 1879 bis 1893 Führer der Knights of Labor, Bürgermeister, Anwalt …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Terence Vincent Powderly — (* 22. Januar 1849 in Carbondale, Pennsylvania; † 24. Juni 1924 in Washington D.C.), war amerikanischer Gewerkschafter, von 1879 bis 1893 Führer der Knights of Labor, Bürgermeister, Anwalt, Generalbevollmächtigter de …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Powderly, Terence V. — ▪ American labour leader in full  Terence Vincent Powderly   born January 22, 1849, Carbondale, Pennsylvania, U.S. died June 24, 1924, Washington, D.C.  American labour leader and politician who led the Knights of Labor (KOL) from 1879 to 1893.… …   Universalium

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