Reintroduction


Reintroduction

Reintroduction is the deliberate release of species into the wild, from captivity or relocated from other areas where the species survives. It usually involves species that are endangered or extinct in the wild. Because reintroduction involves native species that have become (locally) extinct, some prefer the term "re-establishment".

Survival skills

It may be very hard to reintroduce EW species into the wild, even if their natural habitats were restored. Survival techniques, which are normally passed from parents to offspring during parenting, are lost. The genetics of the species is saved, but the natural memetics of the species is not.

Beginning in the 1980s, biologists have learned that many mammals and birds need to learn a lot to survive in the wild. Thus, reintroduction programmes have to be planned carefully, ensuring that the animals have the necessary survival skills. Biologists must also study the animals after the reintroduction to learn whether the animals are surviving and breeding, what effects the reintroduction has on the ecosystem, and how to improve the process.

Still, a vast number of animals may need to be reintroduced into the wild to be sure that enough of them learn how to survive. For instance, in reintroducing Houbara Bustards into the wild in the United Arab Emirates, more than 5,000 birds per year are used. [ [http://www.uaeinteract.com/docs/Houbara_bustard_reintroduced_into_the_wild/29383.htm uaeinteract.com - Houbara bustard reintroduced into the wild]

IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group

The IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group (RSG) [ [http://www.iucnsscrsg.org/downloads.html IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group’s Re-introduction Guidelines: 1) IUCN Position Statement on the Translocation of Living Organism; 2) Guidelines for Re-introduction.] ] is one of the over 100 Specialist groups of the Species Survival Commission (SSC), which is one of the six IUCN Commissions, with its headquarters in Gland, Switzerland. The RSG is one of the few disciplinary Specialist Groups (e.g. Veterinary, Conservation Breeding) as opposed to the majority which are taxon based (e.g. Crocodile, Cat, Orchid).

The role of the RSG is to promote the re-establishment of viable populations in the wild of animals and plants. The need for this role was felt due to the increased demand from re-introduction practitioners, the global conservation community and increase in re-introduction projects worldwide.

Increasing numbers of animal and plant species are becoming rare, or even extinct in the wild. In an attempt to re-establish populations, species can – in some instances – be re-introduced into an area, either through translocation from existing wild populations, or by re-introducing captive-bred animals or artificially propagated plants.

Ongoing or successful reintroduction programs in the UK

*Northern Goshawk – the existing UK population is believed to be derived from a mixture of escaped falconers' birds and deliberate introductions - (successful)
*Large Blue butterfly in the west and south-west of England - (successful and ongoing)
*Red Kite in the Chiltern Hills, Black Isle, Northamptonshire, Dumfries and Galloway, North Yorkshire, Perth and Kinross and Gateshead - (successful)
*Osprey to Rutland Water - (successful)
*White-tailed Eagle to the Hebrides - (successful)
*White-tailed Eagle to the east coast of Scotland - ongoing
*Glanville Fritillary butterfly to Somerset - (successful)
*Heath Fritillary butterfly to Essex - (successful)
*Great Bustard to Salisbury Plain - (ongoing)
*Black Grouse to Derbyshire - (ongoing)
*Corncrake to Cambridgeshire - (ongoing)
*Wild Boar to several places in England - (accidental), (successful)
*Red Squirrel to Anglesey - successful and ongoing [ [http://www.redsquirrels.info Red squirrel conservation, squirrel ecology and grey squirrel management ] ]

Planned or proposed reintroduction programs in the UK

*Common Crane to England (proposed, due to commence 2008)
*European Beaver in Scotland (proposed)
*Wolf in Scotland (proposed)
*White-tailed Eagle to England and Wales (proposed, due to be reintroduced to Suffolk as soon as 2008)
*Silver-washed Fritillary to Essex
*European Lynx in England and Scotland (proposed)

Rejected reintroduction proposals in the UK

*The Wild Beasts Trust
*European Beaver in Scotland (2005)

Planned or proposed reintroduction programs around the world

* Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project of Asiatic Lion to Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary from their only home presently in the world at Gir Forest National Park. Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary is the chosen site for re-introducing and establishing the world's second completely separate population of the wild free ranging Asiatic Lions in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Ongoing or successful reintroduction programs in other countries

*Black-footed Ferret in the USA and Mexico
*Brush-tailed Bettong in Australia (ongoing)
*California Condor in California (USA) and Mexico (ongoing)
*European Beaver in several places in Europe (successful)
*European Otter in the Netherlands (ongoing)
*European Lynx in Switzerland (successful), and other parts of Europe (ongoing)
*European Black Vulture in the Massif Central in France
*Griffon Vulture in the Massif Central, France (successful), Central Apennines, Italy, and Northern and Southern Israel (ongoing)
*Lammergeier in the Alps (successful)
*Lesser Kestrel in Spain
*Lesser White-fronted Goose in Sweden and Germany (ongoing)
*Musk ox in Alaska (USA) (successful)
*Northern Bald Ibis in Austria and Italy (ongoing)
*Nubian Ibex in Israel (successful)
*Père David's Deer in China (ongoing)
*Peregrine Falcon in Germany, Poland, Sweden and Norway
*Persian Fallow Deer in Israel (ongoing)
*Przewalski's Horse in Mongolia (ongoing)
*Red Kite in Ireland [ [http://www.environ.ie/en/Heritage/NationalParksandWildlife/News/MainBody,5384,en.htm News - Department of the Environment, Heritage & Local Government ] ]
*Golden Eagle in Ireland (ongoing)
*Wisent in Poland, Belarus (successful) and other parts of Europe (ongoing)
*Wolf in Wyoming (USA) (successful)
*Arabian Oryx in the Sultanate of Oman (successful)

ee also

*Reintroduction of wolves
*Translocation (Wildlife conservation)
*Wildlife management
*Wildlife conservation
*World Conservation Union (IUCN)

References

External links

* [http://www.iucnsscrsg.org/ IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group]
* [http://www.iucnsscrsg.org/downloads.html IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group's NEWSLETTER: "Re-introduction NEWS" (IUCN/SSC)]
* [http://www.iucn.org/ The World Conservation Union (IUCN)]
* [http://www.cbsg.org/reports/mammals.php Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, IUCN: CBSG “PHVA” Reports (Population and Habitat Viability Assessment)]
* [http://www.cbsg.org/index.php Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, IUCN]
* [http://www.goldeneagle.ie/index.html Reintroduction of Golden Eagle to Ireland]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/gloucestershire/4380276.stm BBC News release on Beaver reintroduction in England]
* [http://www.scotsbeavers.org/ Scottish Beavers Network - campaigning for Beaver reintroduction in Scotland]
* [http://www.treemail.nl/takh/ Reintroduction of Przewalski's Horse to Mongolia]
* [http://www.greatbustard.com Reintroduction of Great Bustard to England]
* [http://www.asiatic-lion.org/kuno.html Kuno: Asiatic Lion’s second home in making]
* [http://www.redsquirrels.info/squirrelcam.html Red Squirrel Reintroduction in the UK]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Reintroduction — Réintroduction La réintroduction d espèces animales ou végétales dans leur milieu naturel est une des stratégies mises en œuvre par la biologie de la conservation. Elle s inscrit la plupart du temps dans un projet plus global (Plan de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • réintroduction — [ reɛ̃trɔdyksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1817; de réintroduire ♦ Nouvelle introduction (I). ● réintroduction nom féminin Action de réintroduire ; fait d être réintroduit. réintroduction [ʀeɛ̃tʀɔdyksjɔ̃] n. f. ÉTYM. 1873; de réintroduire …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • reintroduction — 1660s, from RE (Cf. re ) + INTRODUCTION (Cf. introduction) …   Etymology dictionary

  • reintroduction — [spelling only] …   English World dictionary

  • Réintroduction — La réintroduction d espèces animales ou végétales dans leur milieu naturel est une des stratégies mises en œuvre par la biologie de la conservation. Il peut parfois s agir de mesures compensatoires (ex : écrevisses à pattes blanches… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Reintroduction — reintrodukcija statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Gyvūnų ar augalų rūšies, kuri tam tikroje teritorijoje yra išnykusi ar išnaikinta, pakartotinis įvežimas į tą teritoriją ir išplatinimas siekiant ją vėl įveisti gamtoje.… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • reintroduction — reintrodukcija statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Gyvūnų ar augalų rūšies, kuri tam tikroje teritorijoje yra išnykusi ar išnaikinta, pakartotinis įvežimas į tą teritoriją ir išplatinimas siekiant ją vėl įveisti gamtoje.… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • réintroduction — (entrée créée par le supplément) (ré in tro du ksion) s. f. Nouvelle introduction. •   L orateur a combattu la réintroduction de la presse des mousses, qui avait été proposée, Journ offic. 23 nov. 1873, p. 7135, 3e col …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • reintroduction — reintrodukcija statusas Aprobuotas sritis biologinė įvairovė apibrėžtis Rūšies pakartotinis įkurdinimas areale, kuriame ji gyveno, bet išnyko ar buvo išnaikinta. atitikmenys: angl. reintroduction šaltinis Lietuvos Respublikos saugomų gyvūnų,… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • reintroduction — reintroduce ► VERB 1) bring into effect again. 2) put (a species of animal or plant) back into a former habitat. DERIVATIVES reintroduction noun …   English terms dictionary


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