Transponder


Transponder
A Highway 407 toll transponder

In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR,[1] XPNDR,[2] TPDR[3] or TP[4]) has the following meanings:

Contents

Satellite/broadcast communications

A communications satellite’s channels are called transponders, because each is a separate transceiver or repeater. With digital video data compression and multiplexing, several video and audio channels may travel through a single transponder on a single wideband carrier. Original analog video only has one channel per transponder, with subcarriers for audio and automatic transmission identification service (ATIS). Non-multiplexed radio stations can also travel in single channel per carrier (SCPC) mode, with multiple carriers (analog or digital) per transponder. This allows each station to transmit directly to the satellite, rather than paying for a whole transponder, or using landlines to send it to an earth station for multiplexing with other stations.

Optical communications

In optical fiber communications, a transponder is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data rate and the maximum distance the signal can travel.

Different descriptions, with important functional differences, might be implicitly assumed across various academic and commercial literature:

  • according to one description,[5] a transponder and transceiver are both functionally similar devices that convert a full-duplex electrical signal in a full-duplex optical signal. The difference between the two being that transceivers interface electrically with the host system using a serial interface, whereas transponders use a parallel interface to do so. In this view, transponders provide easier to handle lower-rate parallel signals, but are bulkier and consume more power than transceivers.
  • according to another description,[6] transceivers are limited to providing an electrical-optical function only (not differentiating between serial or parallel electrical interfaces), whereas transponders convert an optical signal at one wavelength to an optical signal at another wavelength (typically ITU standardized for DWDM communication). As such, transponders can be considered as two transceivers placed back-to-back. This view also seems to be held by e.g. Fujitsu [7]

As a result, difference in transponder functionality also might influence the functional description of related optical modules like transceivers and muxponders.

Aviation

Another type of transponder occurs in identification friend or foe systems in military aviation and in air traffic control secondary surveillance radar (beacon radar) systems for general aviation and commercial aviation. Primary radar works best with large all-metal aircraft, but not so well on small, composite aircraft. Its range is also limited by terrain and rain or snow and also detects unwanted objects such as automobiles, hills and trees. Furthermore it cannot always estimate the altitude of an aircraft. Secondary radar overcomes these limitations but it depends on a transponder in the aircraft to respond to interrogations from the ground station to make the plane more visible.

Depending on the type of interrogation, the transponder sends back a transponder code (or "squawk code") (Mode A) or altitude information (Mode C) to help air traffic controllers to identify the aircraft and to maintain separation. Another mode called Mode S (Mode Select) is designed to help avoiding overinterogation of the transponder (having many radars in busy areas) and to allow automatic collision avoidance. Mode S transponders are 'backwards compatible' with Modes A & C. Mode S is mandatory in controlled airspace in many countries. Some countries have also required, or are moving towards requiring, that all aircraft be equipped with Mode S, even in uncontrolled airspace. However in the field of general aviation, there have been objections to these moves, because of the cost, size, limited benefit to the users in uncontrolled airspace, and, in the case of balloons and gliders, the power requirements during long flights.

Marine

Navigational aids often have transponders called RACON designed to make them stand out on a ship's radar screen.

Automotive

Many modern automobiles (especially the more expensive models) have keys with transponders hidden inside the plastic head of the key. The owner of the car may not even be aware that the transponder is there because there are no buttons to press. When a key is inserted into the ignition lock cylinder and turned, the car's computer sends a radio signal to the transponder. Unless the transponder replies with a valid code, the computer will not allow the engine to be started. Transponder keys have no battery; they are energized by the radio signal itself.

Road

The E-ZPass system in the eastern United States is one of many systems for paying bridge and road tolls by a RFID transponder in the car. The Highway 407 in Ontario is one of the world's first completely automated toll highways.

Motorsport

Transponders are used in motorsport for lap timing purposes. A cable loop is dug into the race circuit near to the start/finish line. Each car has an active transponder with a unique id code. When the racing car passes the start/finish line the lap time and the racing position is shown on the score board.

Passive and active RFID systems are used in off road events such as Enduro and Hare and Hounds racing, the riders have a transponder on their person, normally on their arm. When they complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log their lap time. The Casimo Group Ltd make a system which does this.

NASCAR uses transponders and cable loops placed at numerous points around the track to determine the lineup during a caution period. This system replaced a dangerous race back to the start-finish line.

Underwater

Sonar transponders operate under water and are used to measure distance and form the basis of underwater location marking, position tracking and navigation.

Gated communities

Transponders may also be used by residents to enter their gated communities. However, having more than one transponder causes problems.

See also

  • Acronyms and abbreviations in avionics

References

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • transponder — transpondér s. n. Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic  TRANSPONDÉR s. n. aparat radio destinat a răspunde unei impulsii radar. (< engl. transponder, fr. transpondeur) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • transponder — 1945, from trans(mit) + (res)pond + er …   Etymology dictionary

  • transponder — ► NOUN ▪ a device for receiving a radio signal and automatically transmitting a different signal. ORIGIN blend of TRANSMIT(Cf. ↑transmittal) and RESPOND(Cf. ↑responder) …   English terms dictionary

  • transponder — [tran spän′dər] n. [ TRAN(SMITTER) + (RE)SPONDER] a radio or radar transceiver that automatically transmits electrical signals when actuated by a specific signal from an interrogator …   English World dictionary

  • Transponder — Ein Transponder ist ein Funk Kommunikationsgerät, das eingehende Signale aufnimmt und automatisch beantwortet bzw. weiterleitet. Der Begriff Transponder ist zusammengesetzt aus den Begriffen Transmitter und Responder. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Passive …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Transponder — Trans|pọn|der 〈m. 3; Tech.〉 1. Gerät, das eingehende Signale empfängt u. beantwortet, z. B. für die Navigation von Flugzeugen 2. 〈TV〉 Anlage eines Fernsehsatelliten, die auf einer bestimmten Frequenz empfangene Signale auf einer anderen Frequenz …   Universal-Lexikon

  • transponder — UK [trænˈspɒndə(r)] / US [trænˈspɑndər] noun [countable] Word forms transponder : singular transponder plural transponders physics a piece of electronic equipment used for communicating with radio or radar. It sends a reply every time that it… …   English dictionary

  • Transponder — siųstuvas imtuvas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. transceiver; transponder vok. Sendeempfänger, m; Sender Empfänger, m; Transponder, m rus. приёмопередатчик, m; транспондер, m pranc. émetteur récepteur, m; transmetteur récepteur,… …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • transponder — siųstuvas imtuvas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. transceiver; transponder vok. Sendeempfänger, m; Sender Empfänger, m; Transponder, m rus. приёмопередатчик, m; транспондер, m pranc. émetteur récepteur, m; transmetteur récepteur,… …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • Transponder — Trans|pon|der der; s, <aus gleichbed. engl. transponder, Kurzw. aus transmitter (vgl. ↑Transmitter) u. responder »Antwortgeber«> nachrichtentechnische Anlage, die von einer Sendestation ausgehende Funksignale aufnimmt, verstärkt u. [auf… …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch


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