Infobox Russian city
EnglishName = Bryansk
RussianName = Брянск
LatDeg = 53 | LatMin = 15 | LatSec = 00
LonDeg = 34 | LonMin = 22 | LonSec = 00
MunStatus = Urban okrug
LeaderType = Head
LeaderName = Igor Alyokhin
Area_km2 = 186
Population = 431526
Event1 = Town status
Event2 = Liberated from Germans
September 17, 1943
PostalCode = 241
DialingCode = 4832
Website = http://www.admin.bryansk.ru
Bryansk ( _ru. Брянск) is a city in
Russia, located 379 km southwest from Moscow. It is the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast. Population: 431,526 (2002 Census).
The first written mention of Bryansk was in 1146, in the
Hypatian Codex, as Debryansk (appears variously as _ru. Дъбряньск, _ru. Дьбряньск, and in other spellings). [ [http://www.lrc-lib.ru/rus_letopisi/Ipatius/gif_mm.php?page=124! Hypatian Codex] ] Its name is derived from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland" or "dense woodland" [Черных П. Я.: Историко-этимологический словарь современного русского языка. Москва, Русский язык-Медиа, 2004] Смолицкая Г. П.: Топонимический словарь Центральной России. Москва, Армада-пресс, 2002] ; the area was known for its dense woods, "брянские леса", of which very little remains today. Local authorities and archaeologists, however, believe that the town had existed as early as 985 as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River.
Bryansk remained poorly attested until the
Mongol invasion of Russia. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids. After Mikhail of Chernigovwas murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the principality of Smolensk. Olgierdof Lithuaniaacquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Švitrigaila, and George of Smolensk. Great Duchy of Moscowconquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedroshain 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. Peter the Greatincorporated Bryansk into the Kiev governorate, but Catherine the Greatdeemed it wise to transfer the town to the Oryol guberniyain 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair, the largest in Western Russia. The fair was held annually under the auspices of the
Svensky Monastery. After canon and ammunition started to be manufactured there for the Imperial Russian Navyin 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgyand textiles. The city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917.
In 1918 the
Belarusian People's Republicclaimed Bryansk, but the town was taken by Bolshevikforces in 1919. During the World War II, Bryansk was occupied by the Germans (from October 6, 1941to September 17, 1943) and the city was heavily damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisanswere active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. Soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast(1944).
Today Bryansk is an important center for
steeland machinerymanufacturing, and is home to many large factories. Railway wagonsand locomotives are important products. Bryansk also has two universities, three theatres and a technical academy. The city and the region was mildly affected by Chernobyl accident. The city has a developed Trolley bus network and is a hub of several road and rail connections.
cosmonaut Viktor M. Afanasyev, shot putathlete Svetlana Krivelyova, and sculptorand the architect Naum Gabowere born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov(Marek) died in an aviation accidentnear the city.
*ru icon [http://admin.bryansk.ru/main.shtml Official website of the city]
*ru icon [http://www.bryanskobl.ru/~press/history/history3w.shtml History of Bryansk on the website of the regional administration]
*ru icon [http://www.unecha.net/ Unecha - towns in Bryansk Oblast]
*en icon [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&om=1&z=12&ll=53.224741,34.429779&spn=0.156415,0.319977&t=k Google Maps Satellite Image]
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